Category Archives: Rutin

Rutin Inhibits Osteoclasts by Decreasing ROS and TNF-alpha by Inhibiting NF-kappaB


Rutin inhibits osteoclast formation by decreasing reactive oxygen species and TNF-alpha by inhibiting activation of NF-kappaB.

Rutin, a glycoside of flavonol, inhibits osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) in bone marrow-derived macrophages. It reduces reactive oxygen species produced by RANKL and its inhibitory effect results from reduced levels of TNF-alpha. Rutin also lowers NF-kappaB activation in response to RANKL.

Kyung TW, Lee JE, Shin HH, Choi HS
Exp. Mol. Med. Feb 2008
PMID: 18305398 | Free Full Text

Rutin Inhibits Osteopenia in Ovariectomized Rats


Rutin inhibits ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in rats.

Several studies suggest that polyphenols might exert a protective effect against osteopenia. The present experiment was conducted to observe the effects of rutin (quercetin-3-O-glucose rhamnose) on bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty 3-month-old Wistar rats were used. Twenty were OVX while the 10 controls were sham-operated (SH). Among the 20 OVX, for 90 days after surgery 10 were fed the same synthetic diet as the SH or OVX ones, but 0. 25% rutin (OVX + R) was added. At necropsy, the decrease in uterine weight was not different in OVX and OVX + R rats. Ovariectomy also induced a significant decrease in both total and distal metaphyseal femoral mineral density, which was prevented by rutin consumption. Moreover, femoral failure load, which was not different in OVX and SH rats, was even higher in OVX + R rats than in OVX or SH rats. In the same way, on day 90, both urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion (a marker for bone resorption) and calciuria were higher in OVX rats than in OVX + R or SH rats. Simultaneously, plasma osteocalcin (OC) concentration (a marker for osteoblastic activity) was higher in OVX + R rats than in SH rats. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of plasma samples from OVX + R rats revealed that mean plasma concentration of active metabolites (quercetin and isorhamnetin) from rutin was 9.46+/-1 microM, whereas it was undetectable in SH and OVX rats. These results indicate that rutin (and/or its metabolites), which appeared devoid of any uterotrophic activity, inhibits ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss in rats, both by slowing down resorption and increasing osteoblastic activity.

Horcajada-Molteni MN, Crespy V, Coxam V, Davicco MJ…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Nov 2000
PMID: 11092407

Quercetin and Rutin Inhibit Resorption by Their Estrogen Receptor Proteins


Modulation of osteoclastogenesis in porcine bone marrow cultures by quercetin and rutin.

Flavonols, in contrast to soybean isoflavones, are the most abundant phytoestrogens in western diets, being present in onions, beans, fruits, red wine, and tea. They may protect against atherosclerosis, inhibit certain cancer cell types, and reduce bone resorption. The most widely distributed flavonol is quercetin, which occurs mainly as its glycoside, rutin, but data are very scarce regarding the precise mechanism of action of these compounds on bone-resorbing cells at concentrations similar to those detected in human plasma. We have therefore investigated the effects of nanomolar concentrations of quercetin and rutin on the development and activity of osteoclasts in vitro compared with the effects of 17beta-estradiol. Nonadherent porcine bone marrow cells were cultured on dentine slices in the presence of 10 nM 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), with or without 10 nM quercetin, 10 nM rutin or 10 nM 17beta-estradiol for 11 days. Multinuclear TRAP+ cells that resorbed dentine (osteoclasts) developed in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3, but their number was significantly reduced by quercetin, rutin, and 17beta-estradiol (P < 0.05). Like 17beta-estradiol, both flavonols also significantly reduced resorption (P<0.05) as assessed by the size of pits resorbed on dentine slices. Osteoclasts and osteoclast progenitors contained estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), ERbeta, and RANK proteins. Both flavonols increased nuclear ERbeta protein and decreased ERalpha protein of osteoclast progenitors. Moreover, rutin reduced RANK protein, whereas 17beta-oestradiol and quercetin promoted apoptosis by cleavage of caspase-8 and caspase-3. All the effects of flavonols were reversed by 1 microM ICI 182,780, an estrogen antagonist. Thus, the anti-resorbing properties of flavonols are mainly mediated by ER proteins through the inhibition of RANK protein or the activation of caspases.

Rassi CM, Lieberherr M, Chaumaz G, Pointillart A…
Cell Tissue Res. Mar 2005
PMID: 15688188

Rutin Effects Likely from Quercetin


[Comparative study on effects of rutin and quercetin on metabolism in osteoblast cells].

To investigate the mechanism of rutin and its aglycone (quercetin) in preventing and treating osteoporosis and their effects on stimulating bone formation were studied comparatively in osteoblast cells.
The effects of rutin and quercetin on the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were studied respectively by using tetrazolium (MTT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineralized nodules assays in newborn rat calvarial osteoblast (ROB) cells.
Quercetin showed significant stimulatory effects on proliferation and mineralization in ROB cells, so it could promote bone formation. However, rutin could not improve stimulation of bone formation because it increased proliferation and inhibited differentation and had no remarkable influence on ROB cells in vitro.
Rutin showed less activity than quercetin on bone formation in ROB cells in vitro. Therefore the mechanism that some foods and traditional Chinese medicine containing rutin can prevent and treat osteoporosis is that its metaboite in vivo can promote bone formation in ROB cells.

Yang YJ, Yang ZL, Wang DC, Xiao XC…
Zhong Yao Cai May 2006
PMID: 16981462