Category Archives: Prebiotics

Oligogalacturonic Acid Inhibits Resorption In Vitro


Oligogalacturonic acid inhibit bone resorption and collagen degradation through its interaction with type I collagen.

In this study, we showed that oligogalacturonic acid (OGA) purified from flax pectin inhibit in vitro osteoclastic bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. The OGA inhibitory effect was neither linked to an effect on osteoclast apoptosis, nor to an inhibition of cathepsin K activity. By means of an in vitro collagen degradation assay we demonstrated that OGA prevented triple-helical type I collagen cleavage by cathepsin K in a dose and chain length dependent manner. This inhibition was not restricted to cathepsin K, since collagenolytic activity of other lysosomal cysteine proteases, such as cathepsin B and cathepsin L, as well as matrixmetalloproteinases such as MMP-9 were also inhibited. Interestingly, using non-collagen substrates we demonstrated that OGA does not inhibit the proteolytic activity of cathepsin B and L, suggesting that OGA inhibits collagen degradation without affecting the lysosomal cysteine enzyme proteolytic activity. Finally, preliminary study using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that OGA binds to type I collagen but not to albumin, consistent with a specific effect on collagen. These results suggest that the observed inhibition of collagen degradation by OGA may be due to its ability to bind to the collagen molecule. By masking the collagen surface, OGA may render the collagen cleavage site less accessible to enzymes and thus prevent its enzymatic degradation.

Lion JM, Mentaverri R, Rossard S, Jullian N…
Biochem. Pharmacol. Dec 2009
PMID: 19647720

Lactosucrose Enhances Calcium Absorption in Young Women


Long-term administration of 4G-beta-D-galactosylsucrose (lactosucrose) enhances intestinal calcium absorption in young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled 96-wk study.

This study determined the effect of long-term administration of 4(G)-beta-D-galactosylsucrose (lactosucrose; LS) on intestinal calcium absorption. In a randomized, single-blind, parallel-group study, LS (n=9, 6.0 g twice daily) or a placebo (maltose; n=8, 6.0 g twice daily) was administered to healthy young women for 92 wk: the study also included a 4-wk post-administration period. All participants completed the study. Dietary nutrient intake; fecal weight, pH, and moisture content; fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), putrefactive products, ammonia, and minerals (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron); and serum calcium and osteocalcin concentrations were measured every 24 wk. Urinary pyridinoline (PYR) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and urinary calcium excretion were measured every 12 wk. Significant effects of oligosaccharide treatment, time, and the interaction between oligosaccharide treatment and time were observed for fecal pH, SCFA, ammonia, and putrefactive product values (p<0.05). Fecal pH, ammonia, and putrefactive product values decreased in the LS group, and the fecal SCFA concentration significantly increased during the administration period; these changes were not observed 4 wk post-administration. To examine the mineral balance of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in detail, all the participants completed a 6-d mineral balance study, sometime between week 56 and 60 of the longer study. During the mineral balance study, the daily calcium intake was set at 400 mg; all feces and urine were collected each day for 6 d after an 8-d acclimation period. In the balance study, fecal calcium excretion was significantly lower in the LS group than in the placebo group (p<0.05), and apparent calcium absorption and retention, apparent magnesium and phosphorus absorption, and magnesium retention were significantly higher in the LS group than in the placebo group (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the administration of LS produces a long-term enhancement of intestinal calcium absorption in healthy young women with lower than recommended calcium intakes.

Teramoto F, Rokutan K, Sugano Y, Oku K…
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. Oct 2006
PMID: 17190104 | Free Full Text

BMD did not differ between groups.

The lack of change in BMD might have been influenced by enhanced intestinal phosphorus absorption as a consequence of the enhanced intestinal calcium absorption during LS administration.

The insufficient calcium intake, age of the participants, ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the diet, and changes in LS administration may have influenced BMD.

FOS+Inulin Like 250mg More Calcium in Adolescents


Young adolescents who respond to an inulin-type fructan substantially increase total absorbed calcium and daily calcium accretion to the skeleton.

Calcium absorption and whole-body bone mineral content are greater in young adolescents who receive 8 g/d of Synergy, a mixture of inulin-type fructans (ITF), compared with those who received a maltodextrin control. Not all adolescents responded to this intervention, however. We evaluated 32 responders and 16 nonresponders to the calcium absorptive benefits of ITF. We found no differences in usual dietary calcium intakes. Responders who increased their calcium absorption by at least 3% after 8 wk of Synergy had a greater accretion of calcium to the skeleton over a year based on whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry data. The absorptive benefit to ITF use in responders is substantial and would be comparable to increasing daily calcium intake by at least 250 mg. Increased intake of ITF may be an important aspect of a multifaceted approach to enhancing peak bone mass.

Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hawthorne KM
J. Nutr. Nov 2007
PMID: 17951496 | Free Full Text

Review: FOS and Inulin and Calcium Absorption


Current data with inulin-type fructans and calcium, targeting bone health in adults.

In humans, there is increasing evidence that the colon can absorb nutritionally significant amounts of calcium, and this process may be susceptible to dietary manipulation by fermentable substrates, especially inulin-type fructans. Inulin-type fructans can modulate calcium absorption because they are resistant to hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes and are fermented in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids, which in turn reduce luminal pH and modify calcium speciation, and hence solubility, or exert a direct effect on the mucosal transport pathway. Quite a few intervention studies showed an improvement of calcium absorption in adolescents or young adults by inulin-type fructans. In the same way, a positive effect has been reported in older women.

Coxam V
J. Nutr. Nov 2007
PMID: 17951497 | Free Full Text

FOS Has No Bone Benefits in Chicks


Effects of age, vitamin D3, and fructooligosaccharides on bone growth and skeletal integrity of broiler chicks.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of age, vitamin D(3), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and mechanical properties in broiler chicks using peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical testing. A total of 54 male broiler chicks (1 d old) were placed in battery brooders and fed a corn-soybean starter diet for 7 d. After 7 d, the chicks were randomly assigned to pens of 3 birds each. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. There were 6 treatments: 1) early age control (control 1); 2) control 2; 3) 125 µg/kg of vitamin D(3); 4) 250 µg/kg of vitamin D(3); 5) 2% FOS); and 6) 4% FOS. The control 1 chicks were fed a control broiler diet and killed on d 14 to collect femurs for bone analyses. The remaining groups were killed on d 21. Femurs from 3-wk-old chicks showed greater midshaft cortical BMD, BMC, bone area, thickness, and marrow area than those from 2-wk-old chicks (P = 0.016, 0.0003, 0.0002, 0.01, and 0.0001, respectively). Total, cortical, and trabecular BMD of chick proximal femurs were not influenced by age. However, BMC and bone area were significantly affected by age. The femurs of 2-wk-old chicks exhibited significantly lower stiffness and ultimate load than those of 3-wk-old chicks (P = 0.0001), whereas ultimate stress and elastic modulus of the femurs of 2-wk-old chicks were significantly higher than that of femurs of 3-wk-old chicks (P = 0.0001). Chicks fed 250 µg/kg of vitamin D(3) exhibited significantly greater midshaft cortical BMC (P = 0.04), bone area (P = 0.04), and thickness (P = 0.03) than control 2, 2% FOS, or 4% FOS chicks. In summary, our study suggests that high levels of vitamin D(3) can increase bone growth and mineral deposition in broiler chicks. However, FOS did not have any beneficial effects on bone growth and skeletal integrity. Age is an important factor influencing skeletal integrity and mechanical properties in broiler chicks.

Kim WK, Bloomfield SA, Ricke SC
Poult. Sci. Nov 2011
PMID: 22010225 | Free Full Text

GOS Increases Calcium Absorption in Rats


Dietary galactooligosaccharides increase calcium absorption in normal and gastrectomized rats.

To determine whether the galactooligosaccharide stimulates calcium absorption in partially gastrectomized rats.
Animals were submitted to laparotomy (sham-operated control) and partial gastrectomy (Billroth II) in groups of 20. They were fed a control diet (AIN-93M) without galacto-oligosaccharide or a diet containing (galacto-oligosaccharide – 50 g/kg diet) for eight weeks. The animals were divided into four groups: sham-operated and non-gastrectomized with galactooligosaccharide, sham-operated and gastrectomized without galactooligosaccharide. On the final day of the study, whole blood was collected for determination of serum calcium concentration.
In the group with galactooligosaccharides calcium excretion in feces was significantly lower than the group without prebiotics. The apparent absorption of calcium in gastrectomized and normal rats was higher in groups fed with galactooligosaccharide than in the control diet group.
The ingestion of galactooligosaccharides prevents osteopenia in partially gastrectomized rats.

dos Santos EF, Tsuboi KH, Araújo MR, Andreollo NA…
Rev Col Bras Cir
PMID: 21789458 | Free Full Text

Isoflavones + FOS Synergy in Rats


Synergistic effect of isoflavone glycosides and fructooligosaccharides on postgastrectomy osteopenia in rats.

Fructooligosaccharides stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria, which cleave isoflavone glycosides to yield corresponding aglycones, and convert metabolites by enhancing enterohepatic recirculation of isoflavones in rats. In the present study, we determined the synergistic effect of dietary isoflavone glycosides and fructooligosaccharides on postgastrectomy osteopenia in rats. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were gastrectomized (n = 20) or sham operated, (control, n = 5) and then randomly assigned to 5 diet groups: sham-a purified diet control, gastrectomized-control, gastrectomized-isoflavone (0.2% isoflavone glycosides), gastrectomized-fructooligosaccharides (7.5% fructooligosaccharides), and isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides (0.2% isoflavone glycosides + 7.5% fructooligosaccharides). After 6 weeks, the rats were killed and biological samples were collected. In gastrectomized rats, fructooligosaccharides prevented femoral bone fragility, but isoflavone without fructooligosaccharides did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia. Isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides exhibited a synergistic in the distal metaphyseal trabecular bone, indicated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Moreover, fructooligosaccharides increased calcium absorption and equol production from daidzein in gastrectomized rats. These results indicate that isoflavone alone did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia, but the combination of isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides improved the inhibition of trabecular bone loss by increasing calcium absorption and equol production through fructooligosaccharides supplementation.

Kimira Y, Tajima K, Ohta A, Ishimi Y…
J Clin Biochem Nutr Sep 2012
PMID: 22962536 | Free Full Text

Prebiotics Up Magnesium and Calcium Absorption in Rats


Prebiotics enhance magnesium absorption and inulin-based fibers exert chronic effects on calcium utilization in a postmenopausal rodent model.

Age-related changes in calcium metabolism play a role in the development of osteoporosis. A 4-wk feeding study was conducted in 5-mo-old ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats to assess the effect of various dietary fibers on mineral metabolism and bone health parameters. There were 6 treatment groups: sham-Control, OVX-Control, OVX rats receiving daily estradiol (E₂) injections, and OVX rats receiving an AIN-93M diet supplement with either an inulin-based fiber (Synergy1® or Fruitafit HD®) or a novel fiber (polydextrose) at 5% wt. of diet. Calcium and magnesium metabolic balances were performed after early (3 d) and late exposure (4 wk) to dietary treatments. Rats receiving polydextrose had significantly higher net calcium absorption efficiency and retention than all control groups and a trend (P≤ 0.10) for higher calcium absorption when compared to inulin-based fibers after early exposure but the advantage did not persist over long-term exposure. The inulin-based fibers had positive chronic effects on calcium metabolism that were related to changes in the gut, that is, production of short chain fatty acids and higher cecal wall weights. All fibers improved magnesium absorption and retention in early and late metabolic balances; effects on magnesium metabolism were more pronounced than for calcium. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Steady growth in US middle-aged and elderly populations has led to higher incidences of several chronic diseases including osteoporosis, a bone disease that primarily affects postmenopausal women. Recent research suggests that certain dietary fibers (prebiotics) enhance mineral absorption and may impart bone health benefits. This work examines the impact of prebiotic supplementation on mineral metabolism and bone health using a postmenopausal rat model. Study findings will aid future investigations in ascertaining the factors related to potential bone health benefits of prebiotic which will aid in developing an effective prebiotics food product/supplement that will address the bone health needs of consumers.

Legette LL, Lee W, Martin BR, Story JA…
J. Food Sci. Apr 2012
PMID: 22394255

GOS Ups Mineral Absorption and Bone Properties in Rats


Galactooligosaccharides improve mineral absorption and bone properties in growing rats through gut fermentation.

Galactooligosaccharides (GOS), prebiotic nondigestible oligosaccharides derived from lactose, have the potential for improving mineral balance and bone properties. This study examined the dose-response effect of GOS supplementation on calcium and magnesium absorption, mineral retention, bone properties, and gut microbiota in growing rats. Seventy-five 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into one of five treatment groups (n = 15/group) and fed a diet containing 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8% GOS by weight for 8 weeks. Dietary GOS significantly decreased cecal pH and increased cecal wall weight and content weight in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.0001). Fingerprint patterns of the 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE from fecal DNA indicated the variance of bacterial community structure, which was primarily explained by GOS treatments (p = 0.0001). Quantitative PCR of the samples revealed an increase in the relative proportion of bifidobacteria with GOS (p = 0.0001). Net calcium absorption was increased in a dose-response manner (p < 0.01) with GOS supplementation. Dietary GOS also increased (p < 0.02) net magnesium absorption, femur ⁴⁵Ca uptake, calcium and magnesium retention, and femur and tibia breaking strength. Distal femur total and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and area and proximal tibia vBMD increased (p < 0.02) with GOS supplementation. Trabecular-rich bones, that is, those that rapidly turn over, were most benefited. Regression modeling showed that GOS benefited calcium and magnesium utilization and vBMD through decreased cecal pH, increased cecal wall and content weight, and increased proportion of bifidobacteria.

Weaver CM, Martin BR, Nakatsu CH, Armstrong AP…
J. Agric. Food Chem. Jun 2011
PMID: 21553845

Probiotics + FOS-Inulin Decreases Osteocalcin in Aged Rats


Changes in calcium status in aged rats fed Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis and oligofructose-enriched inulin.

In this study we hypothesized that an increase in numbers of beneficial bacteria in the large intestine can affect calcium (Ca) status in the elderly. Adult and aged rats were fed a diet with or without synbiotics for 21 days. Synbiotics increased the numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in large intestine in both adult and aged rats. The plasma Ca concentration was significantly increased while osteocalcin concentration was significantly decreased only in aged rats fed synbiotics.

Naughton V, McSorley E, Naughton PJ
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab Feb 2011
PMID: 21326391