Category Archives: Equol

Isoflavones + FOS Synergy in Rats


Synergistic effect of isoflavone glycosides and fructooligosaccharides on postgastrectomy osteopenia in rats.

Fructooligosaccharides stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria, which cleave isoflavone glycosides to yield corresponding aglycones, and convert metabolites by enhancing enterohepatic recirculation of isoflavones in rats. In the present study, we determined the synergistic effect of dietary isoflavone glycosides and fructooligosaccharides on postgastrectomy osteopenia in rats. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were gastrectomized (n = 20) or sham operated, (control, n = 5) and then randomly assigned to 5 diet groups: sham-a purified diet control, gastrectomized-control, gastrectomized-isoflavone (0.2% isoflavone glycosides), gastrectomized-fructooligosaccharides (7.5% fructooligosaccharides), and isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides (0.2% isoflavone glycosides + 7.5% fructooligosaccharides). After 6 weeks, the rats were killed and biological samples were collected. In gastrectomized rats, fructooligosaccharides prevented femoral bone fragility, but isoflavone without fructooligosaccharides did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia. Isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides exhibited a synergistic in the distal metaphyseal trabecular bone, indicated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Moreover, fructooligosaccharides increased calcium absorption and equol production from daidzein in gastrectomized rats. These results indicate that isoflavone alone did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia, but the combination of isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides improved the inhibition of trabecular bone loss by increasing calcium absorption and equol production through fructooligosaccharides supplementation.

Kimira Y, Tajima K, Ohta A, Ishimi Y…
J Clin Biochem Nutr Sep 2012
PMID: 22962536 | Free Full Text

FOS + Genistin Increases Bone Density in Rats


Combination of genistin and fructooligosaccharides prevents bone loss in ovarian hormone deficiency.

We have reported that soy isoflavones are capable of preventing loss of bone mineral density (BMD) in rats due to ovariectomy. The intestinal microflora is important in rendering soy isoflavones bioavailability by facilitating their conversion to equol. Hence, substances that can modulate the intestinal microflora could affect the bioavailability of isoflavones. The purpose of this study was to examine whether combination of genistin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS), a prebiotic, can enhance the effects of soy isoflavones on bone in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Forty-eight 90-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were either sham-operated (Sham; one group) or Ovx (three groups) and were placed on dietary treatment for 50 days. The Sham and one Ovx group received a control diet, and the remaining Ovx groups received genistin-rich isoflavones diet (Ovx+G) or genistin-rich isoflavones and FOS diet (Ovx+G+FOS). After 50 days, blood and bone specimens were collected for analysis. The genistin-rich isoflavones diet was able to significantly increase the whole-body, right femur, and fourth lumbar BMD by 1.6%, 1.48%, and 1.3%, respectively in comparison with the Ovx control. The combination of genistin-rich isoflavones diet and 5% FOS further increased whole-body, right femur, and fourth lumbar BMD more compared to the genistin-rich isoflavones diet. Our findings suggest that although a genistin-rich isoflavones diet can increase the BMD in rats with Ovx-induced bone loss, combination of genistin-rich isoflavones and FOS had greater effect in preventing bone loss in this rat model.

Hooshmand S, Juma S, Arjmandi BH
J Med Food Apr 2010
PMID: 20132047

According to Wikipedia, Genistin should be converted to Genistein when ingested.

Equol is Bone Sparing, Like Isoflavones in Rats


Modulation of soy isoflavones bioavailability and subsequent effects on bone health in ovariectomized rats: the case for equol.

Soy products are of particular interest because of their potential health benefits in a range of hormonal conditions, such as osteoporosis, due to their high content in phytoestrogens. Because equol, the main metabolite from soy isoflavones, is thought to be powerful, the present study was designated to evaluate the bone-sparing effects of equol by either providing the molecule through the diet or by eliciting its endogenous production by modulating intestinal microflora by short-chain fructooligosaccharides (sc-FOS) or live microbial (Lactobacillus casei) together with daidzein, its precursor.
A comparison with daidzein and genistein was also performed. Rats (3 months old) were ovariectomised (OVX) or sham-operated (SH). Ovariectomised rats were randomly assigned to six experimental diets for 3 months: a control diet (OVX), the control diet supplemented with either genistein (G), or daidzein (D), or equol (E) at the level of 10 microg/g body weight/d. The remaining OVX rats were given daidzein at the dose of 10 mug/g body weight/d, simultaneously with short-chain FOS (Actilight, Beghin-Meiji) (D+FOS) or Lactobacillus casei (Actimel, Danone) (D+L). The SH rats were given the same control diet as OVX.
Genistein, daidzein or equol exhibited a bone sparing effect. Indeed, total femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly enhanced (compared to that of OVX rats), as was the metaphyseal compartment. Bone strength was improved by E consumption, but not by genistein or daidzein given alone. As far as the FOS diet is concerned, the addition of prebiotics significantly raised efficiency of the daidzein protective effect on both femoral BMD and mechanical properties. The effects of lactobacillus were similar, except that the increase in metaphyseal-BMD was not significant.
In conclusion, long-term equol consumption, like genistein and daidzein, in the ovariectomized rat, provides bone sparing effects. Adding indigestible sugars, such as FOS or live microbial as L. casei, in the diet significantly improves daidzein protective effects on the skeleton.

Mathey J, Mardon J, Fokialakis N, Puel C…
Osteoporos Int May 2007
PMID: 17333448