Tag Archives: cross-sectional

Bone Density and Arterial Stiffness Connection


Association of age-dependent height and bone mineral density decline with increased arterial stiffness and rate of fractures in hypertensive individuals.

Hypertension and osteoporosis are age-related health risks differentially expressed in men and women. Here we have analysed their prevalence in a randomly selected cross-sectional cohort [CARTaGENE (CaG) of Quebec, Canada and explored their existing relationships along with height, arterial stiffness and bone fractures.
The principal cohort CaG included 20 007 individuals of age 40-70 years. Participants were subjected to an extensive phenotyping and a questionnaire of medical history and habits.
We determined the differences in height of participants and their relation to hypertension status and sex in this cohort and validated it in two other cohorts (The Canadian Heart Health Study and a family cohort from the Saguenay Lac Saint-Jean, a region of Quebec). In all three cohorts, we found that at younger age individuals with hypertension are taller than normotensive individuals, but they have a shorter stature at an older age compared with normotensive individuals. In CaG, we observed that hypertension, low bone mineral density (BMD) and arterial stiffness are strongly associated with height when adjusted for antihypertensive medications (P < 0.0001). Fractures are the net outcome of low BMD, and a significant association is observed (odds ratio = 2.34, confidence interval = 2.12-2.57); this relation was stronger in hypertensive individuals compared with normotensive individuals particularly in younger hypertensive individuals. In addition, we observed that increased arterial stiffness was significantly correlated with a low BMD in both men and women at all ages.
Shorter stature in elderly, low BMD and fractures correlated with increased arterial stiffness and hypertension. We propose that hypertension and osteoporosis share components of accelerated aging.

El-Bikai R, Tahir MR, Tremblay J, Joffres M…
J. Hypertens. Apr 2015
PMID: 25915877

Bone Density and Arterial Stiffness Again


Low bone mineral density is associated with increased arterial stiffness in participants of a health records based study.

Many epidemiological studies have shown that low bone mineral density (BMD) and atherosclerosis appear to be related. However, their precise correlation is not completely understood after full adjustment the shared confounders of atherosclerosis and bone metabolism. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between BMD and subclinical atherosclerosis in a healthy Chinese population and the difference in gender.
The study population consisted of 2,487 subjects (1,467 men, 1,020 women) who participated in health check-up programs and were selected to be free of major diseases which might affect atherosclerosis and bone metabolism. Bone status was assessed by BMD in lumbar spine. The brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) was assessed as a functional marker of atherosclerosis. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF) and microalbuminuria were evaluated as indexes of structural markers of atherosclerosis.
After adjustment for risk factors, significant association was shown between baPWV and BMD in both genders (male: r=-0.084, P=0.035; female: r=-0.088, P=0.014). The correlation was stronger in females than in males, and in females, the correlation was stronger after menopause. Similarly, mean baPWV differed significantly according to the decreased BMD (normal BMD, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis). In contrast, no significant differences were observed for ABI, CIMT, eGFR or microalbuminuria with BMD.
Independent of confounding factors, low BMD is associated with the functional marker of subclinical atherosclerosis (increased baPWV), but not with structural markers (ABI, CIMT, eGFR or microalbuminuria) among healthy females and males.

Wang YQ, Yang PT, Yuan H, Cao X…
J Thorac Dis May 2015
PMID: 26101634 | Free Full Text

From the full text discussion:

There are several potential mechanisms to explain this link. Both osteoporosis and atherosclerosis share similar or common risk factors. Bone-associated matrix proteins, homocysteine, high levels of OPG, inflammatory mediators, estrogen and vitamin D deficiency all play an important role both in bone metabolism and in the development of atherosclerosis (32).

Fruit Associated With Bone Density and Content in Chinese Women


Fruit and vegetable intake and bone mass in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.

Previous studies showed an inconsistent association of fruit and vegetable consumption with bone health. We assessed the associations in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study conducted in China during July 2009 to May 2010.
Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the whole body, lumbar spine and left hip were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using an FFQ. All these values were separately standardized into Z-scores in each population subgroup.
One hundred and ten boys and 112 girls (11-14 years), 371 young women (20-34 years, postpartum within 2 weeks) and 333 postmenopausal women (50-70 years).
After adjustment for potential covariates, analysis of covariance showed a significantly positive association between fruit intake and BMD and BMC in all participants combined (P-trend: < 0.001 to 0.002). BMD Z-score increased by 0.25 (or 2.1 % of the mean), 0.22 (3.5 %), 0.23 (3.0 %) and 0.25 (3.5 %), and BMC Z-score increased by 0.33 (5.7 %), 0.25 (5.8 %), 0.34 (5.9 %) and 0.29 (4.7 %), at the total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck in participants belonging to the top tertile compared with the bottom tertile of fruit intake (all P < 0.05), respectively. There was no significant association between vegetable intake and bone mass at all bone sites studied except for total body BMD (P = 0.030). Relatively more pronounced effects were observed in boys and postmenopausal women.
Our findings add to the existing evidence that fruits and vegetables may have a bone sparing effect.

Li JJ, Huang ZW, Wang RQ, Ma XM…
Public Health Nutr Jan 2013
PMID: 22717072

Vitamin D Level Influences Bone Density in Saudi Men and Women


Influence of vitamin D levels on bone mineral density and osteoporosis.

The effects of vitamin D on bone mass remain to be understood. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on bone mineral density (BMD) among Saudi nationals.
Cross-sectional study carried out at university hospital from 1 February 2008 to 31 May 2008.
Healthy Saudi men and women in the peak bone mass (PBM) age group and those aged ≥ 50 years were recruited from the outpatient department of King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between February 1, 2008, and May 31, 2008. Patient age and sex were documented, and body mass index was calculated. Hematological, biochemical, and serum 25OHD tests were performed. BMD was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the upper femur and lumbar spine. Patients were divided into three groups, based on their 25OHD level.
Data from 400 patients were analyzed. Among individuals with a normal 25OHD level, 50% of women and 7% of men in the PBM age group and 26.4% of women and 49.2% of men aged ≥ 50 years had low bone mass. In patients with 25OHD insufficiency, 84.2% of women and 88.9% of men in the PBM age group and 83.3% of women and 80% of men aged ≥ 50 years had low bone mass. Results for patients with 25OHD deficiency revealed that none of the men and women in the PBM age group or ≥ 50 years old had normal BMD. Significant positive correlations between 25OHD level and BMD and significant negative correlations with parathyroid hormone were shown in most of the groups.
This study showed that the vitamin D level significantly influences BMD reading among Saudi individuals. Evaluation and treatment of hypovitaminosis D should be considered during management of low bone mass.

Sadat-Ali M, Al Elq AH, Al-Turki HA, Al-Mulhim FA…
Ann Saudi Med
PMID: 22048506 | Free Full Text

Skipping Breakfast Associated with Lower Bone Density in Young Women


Relationship between skipping breakfast and bone mineral density in young Japanese women.

It is well known that insufficient nutrient intake leads to poor bone status. To find a simple evaluation method for prevention of nutrition intake disorder, a cross-sectional study with 275 healthy Japanese female students aged 19-25 was conducted.
Anthropometric parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar and total hip, bone metabolic markers and physical activity were measured in study participants and the frequency of skipping meals (breakfast, lunch, supper), and absolute values for nutrient intakes were assessed using a Diet History Questionnaire.
The frequency of skipping breakfast significantly correlate to total energy intake (ρ= -0.276, p<0.001). BMI, total intake of energy, intake of protein, intake of phosphate, and energy expenditure positively correlated significantly to BMD at lumbar and total hip (p<0.05) using simple linear regression. BMI (regression coefficient (b))=0.088, p<0.001), bone alkaline phosphatase (b= -0.050, p=0.012), total energy expenditure (b=0.019, p<0.001), and frequency of skipping breakfast (b= -0.018, p=0.048) were independent risk factors for lower total hip BMD by multiple regression analysis. The total hip BMD in participants who skipped breakfast three or more times was significantly lower than in those who did not skip breakfast (p=0.007).
In conclusion, managing the frequency of skipping breakfast and reducing it to <3 times per week may be beneficial for the maintenance of bone health in younger women.

Kuroda T, Onoe Y, Yoshikata R, Ohta H
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2013
PMID: 24231019 | Free Full Text

Vitamin D Status Associated with Functional Mobility


Association between serum vitamin D status and functional mobility in memory clinic patients aged 65 years and older.

Recent studies have shown that vitamin D status may be relevant for physical and cognitive performance in the older population. This association may be of particular interest to older people at risk for cognitive impairment and functional decline.
The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and functional mobility in seniors assessed in a memory clinic.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of outpatients (n = 404) in a memory clinic. Functional mobility was assessed with three endpoints: normal and fast walking speed and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Adjusted multivariate analyses in all patients and two pre-planned subgroup analyses in vulnerable seniors (previous fall and MMSE score of ≥26 or no previous fall and MMSE score of <26) versus less vulnerable seniors (no previous fall and MMSE score of ≥26) were performed to assess the association of 25(OH)D and functional mobility.
Overall, mean 25(OH)D serum levels were 63.2 ± 33.9 nmol/l, and 41.3% were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/l). Seniors in the lowest 25(OH)D quartile (<39 nmol/l) had significantly worse functional mobility compared to the highest 25(OH)D quartile (>81 nmol/l); adjusted for all covariates, seniors in the highest quartile performed 9.4% better in normal (p = 0.02) and 9.2% better in fast (p = 0.004) walking speed, and 4.4% better in the TUG test (p = 0.24). The association between 25(OH)D status and functional mobility was most pronounced in less vulnerable seniors (p for trend significant for all three mobility tests). Seniors with a higher 25(OH)D status also had better cognitive function (MMSE score; p = 0.006).
Lower serum 25(OH)D status is associated with poorer functional mobility and cognitive function, therefore supporting 25(OH)D assessment in this population at risk for both functional and cognitive decline.

Gschwind YJ, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Bridenbaugh SA, Härdi I…
Gerontology 2014
PMID: 24335110

Vitamin E Associated with Increased Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women


Lower vitamin E serum levels are associated with osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin E status and osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women. Anthropometric data, osteoporosis risk factors, vitamin E serum levels, bone mineral density (BMD) and other serum parameters which may influence bone mineral density in postmenopausal women were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. The association between osteoporosis and age, age of menopause, body mass index, osteocalcin, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E (measured as 25 hydroxyvitamin D and as α-tocopherol:lipids ratio, respectively), bone alkaline phosphatase, smoking status, leisure physical activity and alcohol intake were modeled by a multivariate logistic regression and multi-linear regression analysis in 232 early postmenopausal women. A lower vitamin E:lipid ratio was associated with osteoporosis in multivariate logistic regression. In a multivariate linear model with BMD of the lumbar spine as a dependent variable, the vitamin E:lipid ratio was clearly related with BMD of the lumbar spine (F ratio = 6.30, p = 0.002). BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly higher in the highest tertile of the vitamin E:lipid ratio than in the lowest tertile. The mean vitamin E:lipid ratio was significantly lower in osteoporotic postmenopausal women (T score ≤-2.5) (3.0 ± 0.6 μmol/mmol) than normal (neither osteoporotic nor osteopenic) postmenopausal women (T score >-1) (3.5 ± 0.7 μmol/mmol) using multivariable-adjusted BMD. These findings highlight that vitamin E may increase BMD in healthy postmenopausal women.

Mata-Granados JM, Cuenca-Acebedo R, Luque de Castro MD, Quesada Gómez JM
J. Bone Miner. Metab. Jul 2013
PMID: 23536191

Sodium Associated with Lower Bone Density in Young Women


Higher urinary sodium, a proxy for intake, is associated with increased calcium excretion and lower hip bone density in healthy young women with lower calcium intakes.

We assessed 24-h urinary sodium (Na) and its relationship with urinary calcium (Ca) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body, lumbar spine and total hip in a cross-sectional study. 102 healthy non-obese women completed timed 24-h urine collections which were analyzed for Na and Ca. Dietary intakes were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were grouped as those with lower vs. higher calcium intake by median split (506 mg/1000 kcal). Dietary Na intake correlated with 24-h urinary loss. Urinary Na correlated positively with urinary Ca for all participants (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and among those with lower (r = 0.37, p < 0.01) but not higher calcium intakes (r = 0.19, p = 0.19). Urinary Na was inversely associated with hip aBMD for all participants (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) and among women with lower (r = -0.36, p < 0.01) but not higher (r = -0.05, p = 0.71) calcium intakes. Urinary Na also entered a regression equation for hip aBMD in women with lower Ca intakes, contributing 5.9% to explained variance. In conclusion, 24-h urinary Na (a proxy for intake) is associated with higher urinary Ca loss in young women and may affect aBMD, particularly in those with lower calcium intakes.

Bedford JL, Barr SI
Nutrients Nov 2011
PMID: 22254088 | Free Full Text

The potential implications of sodium-induced calciuria for bone are likely to be more serious in those with low calcium intakes, who may be unable to increase calcium absorption to fully compensate for increased urinary losses. For example, Heaney [3] noted that to offset the average urinary calcium loss of 1 mmol (40 mg) associated with an increased sodium intake of 100 mmol (2300 mg), gross calcium absorption efficiency would need to increase to 34% (from 25%) in those with intakes of 600 mg/day, and to about 50% (from 37%) in those with intakes of 300 mg/day-and that this may not be possible. However, at intakes of 1200 mg/day, absorption efficiency would only need to increase from to 23% (from 20%) [3]. Empirical support for the idea that high calcium intakes may protect against high sodium intakes is provided by the study of Ilich et al. [20]. In a 3-year prospective study, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to maintain usual sodium intake of about 3000 mg/day or to reduce intake to 1500 mg/day. All women also received calcium supplements, and total calcium intake averaged over 1300 mg/day. Because compliance with the sodium intervention was not high, results were reported by tertile of observed urinary sodium excretion rather than by initial group assignment. No negative associations between urinary sodium and bone density were observed [20]. This suggests that, at least in postmenopausal women with high calcium intakes, sodium intake does not adversely affect bone.

Coffee Not Associated with Bone Density in Premenopausal Korean Women


Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in korean premenopausal women.

Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women.
Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry.
Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927).
This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women.

Choi EJ, Kim KH, Koh YJ, Lee JS…
Korean J Fam Med Jan 2014
PMID: 24501665 | Free Full Text

 This study shows that high consumption of coffee is not associated with increased risk for impaired bone health. Our results are in agreement with some recent cross-sectional studies showing no association between caffeine and impaired bone health, and in disagreement with others which focused on BMD of various skeletal sites.22-26) Habitual dietary caffeine intake was found not to be associated with impaired bone health in healthy postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study in Pennsylvania (USA), on the basis of self-reported questionnaires collected in 2000.23) In elderly men and women from the population-based Framingham Osteoporosis Study, the same results were found.24) These studies are in agreement with our study. Although the frequency consumed and the species of coffee could be significantly affected by cultural differences and socioeconomic status, and the metabolism of caffeine and other constituents can be affected by genetic predisposition, our results in Korean premenopausal women did not appear to contradict those of previous studies.

The role of coffee intake in bone health, however, seems controversial. There are several studies showing a negative association between caffeine and bone health. Daily intake of 330 mg of caffeine, equivalent to 4 cups (600 mL) of coffee, or more may be associated with a modestly increased risk of osteoporotic fractures, especially in women with a low intake of calcium, as shown in a study on Swedish women aged 40 to 76 years.4) Also, in a cohort study, Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (P = 0.04) compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.24)

Moderate Alcohol is Good; Caffeine with Low Calcium is Bad


To drink or not to drink: how are alcohol, caffeine and past smoking related to bone mineral density in elderly women?

To determine relationship between alcohol, caffeine, past smoking and bone mineral density of different skeletal sites in elderly women, accounting for other biological and life-style variables.
A cross-sectional study in 136 Caucasian women, mean +/- SD age 68.6 +/- 7.1 years, all healthy and free of medications affecting bones, including estrogen. Bone mineral density (BMD) of multiple skeletal regions and body composition were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Serum vitamin D (25-OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed and used as confounders. Calcium (Ca) intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Alcohol and caffeine consumption was assessed by questionnaires determining frequency, amount and source of each. There were no current smokers, but the history of smoking was recorded, including number of years and packages smoked/day. Past physical activity was assessed by Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey and used as confounder. Statistical significance was considered at p <or= 0.05.
In the correlational analysis, alcohol was positively associated with spine BMD (r = 0.197, p = 0.02), 25-OHD and negatively with PTH. Smoking was negatively related to Ca intake, 25(OH)D and number of reproductive years. In subgroup (stratified by Ca intake) and multiple regression analyses, alcohol (average approximately 0.5-1 drinks/day or approximately 8 g alcohol/day) was favorably associated with BMD of spine and total body. Caffeine (average approximately 2.5 6-fl oz cups/day or 200-300 mg caffeine/day) had negative association with most of the skeletal sites, which was attenuated with higher Ca intake (>or=median, 750 mg/day). The past smokers who smoked on average 24 years of approximately 1 pack cigarettes/day had lower BMD in total body, spine and femur than never-smokers when evaluated in subgroup analyses, and the association was attenuated in participants with >or=median Ca intake. There was no significant association between past smoking and BMD of any skeletal site in multiple regression analyses.
The results support the notion that consumption of small/moderate amount of alcohol is positively, while caffeine and past smoking are negatively associated with most of the skeletal sites, which might be attenuated with Ca intake above 750 mg/day.

Ilich JZ, Brownbill RA, Tamborini L, Crncevic-Orlic Z
J Am Coll Nutr Dec 2002
PMID: 12480799

It is interesting how many things are bad when calcium is low. There is some evidence that high protein, caffeine, and sodium are all bad for bones only when calcium is low. Otherwise, they all may be moderately good for bones when calcium is high.