Relationship between skipping breakfast and bone mineral density in young Japanese women.
It is well known that insufficient nutrient intake leads to poor bone status. To find a simple evaluation method for prevention of nutrition intake disorder, a cross-sectional study with 275 healthy Japanese female students aged 19-25 was conducted.
Anthropometric parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar and total hip, bone metabolic markers and physical activity were measured in study participants and the frequency of skipping meals (breakfast, lunch, supper), and absolute values for nutrient intakes were assessed using a Diet History Questionnaire.
The frequency of skipping breakfast significantly correlate to total energy intake (ρ= -0.276, p<0.001). BMI, total intake of energy, intake of protein, intake of phosphate, and energy expenditure positively correlated significantly to BMD at lumbar and total hip (p<0.05) using simple linear regression. BMI (regression coefficient (b))=0.088, p<0.001), bone alkaline phosphatase (b= -0.050, p=0.012), total energy expenditure (b=0.019, p<0.001), and frequency of skipping breakfast (b= -0.018, p=0.048) were independent risk factors for lower total hip BMD by multiple regression analysis. The total hip BMD in participants who skipped breakfast three or more times was significantly lower than in those who did not skip breakfast (p=0.007).
In conclusion, managing the frequency of skipping breakfast and reducing it to <3 times per week may be beneficial for the maintenance of bone health in younger women.