Oxytocin controls differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and reverses osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis constitutes a major worldwide public health burden characterized by enhanced skeletal fragility. Bone metabolism is the combination of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Whereas increase in bone resorption is considered as the main contributor of bone loss that may lead to osteoporosis, this loss is accompanied by increased bone marrow adiposity. Osteoblasts and adipocytes share the same precursor cell and an inverse relationship exists between the two lineages. Therefore, identifying signaling pathways that stimulate mesenchymal stem cells osteogenesis at the expense of adipogenesis is of major importance for developing new therapeutic treatments. For this purpose, we identified by transcriptomic analysis the oxytocin receptor pathway as a potential regulator of the osteoblast/adipocyte balance of human multipotent adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells. Both oxytocin (OT) and carbetocin (a stable OT analogue) negatively modulate adipogenesis while promoting osteogenesis in both hMADS cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Consistent with these observations, ovariectomized (OVX) mice and rats, which become osteoporotic and exhibit disequilibrium of this balance, have significant decreased OT levels compared to sham-operated controls. Subcutaneous OT injection reverses bone loss in OVX mice and reduces marrow adiposity. Clinically, plasma OT levels are significantly lower in postmenopausal women developing osteoporosis than in their healthy counterparts. Taken together, these results suggest that plasma OT levels represent a novel diagnostic marker for osteoporosis and that OT administration holds promise as a potential therapy for this disease.
Elabd C, Basillais A, Beaupied H, Breuil V…
Stem Cells Sep 2008
PMID: 18583541 | Free Full Text
Sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
The development of bone-rebuilding anabolic agents for potential use in the treatment of bone loss conditions, such as osteoporosis, has been a long-standing goal. Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, although the magnitude and extent of sclerostin’s role in the control of bone formation in the aging skeleton is still unclear. To study this unexplored area of sclerostin biology and to assess the pharmacologic effects of sclerostin inhibition, we used a cell culture model of bone formation to identify a sclerostin neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbII) for testing in an aged ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized and left untreated for 1 yr to allow for significant estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, at which point Scl-AbII was administered for 5 wk. Scl-AbII treatment in these animals had robust anabolic effects, with marked increases in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. This not only resulted in complete reversal, at several skeletal sites, of the 1 yr of estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, but also further increased bone mass and bone strength to levels greater than those found in non-ovariectomized control rats. Taken together, these preclinical results establish sclerostin’s role as a pivotal negative regulator of bone formation in the aging skeleton and, furthermore, suggest that antibody-mediated inhibition of sclerostin represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the anabolic treatment of bone-related disorders, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Li X, Ominsky MS, Warmington KS, Morony S…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Apr 2009
Two doses of sclerostin antibody in cynomolgus monkeys increases bone formation, bone mineral density, and bone strength.
The development of bone-rebuilding anabolic agents for treating bone-related conditions has been a long-standing goal. Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation. More recently, administration of sclerostin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in rodent studies has shown that pharmacologic inhibition of sclerostin results in increased bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength. To explore the effects of sclerostin inhibition in primates, we administered a humanized sclerostin-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbIV) to gonad-intact female cynomolgus monkeys. Two once-monthly subcutaneous injections of I were administered at three dose levels (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg), with study termination at 2 months. Scl-AbIV treatment had clear anabolic effects, with marked dose-dependent increases in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. Bone densitometry showed that the increases in bone formation with Scl-AbIV treatment resulted in significant increases in bone mineral content (BMC) and/or bone mineral density (BMD) at several skeletal sites (ie, femoral neck, radial metaphysis, and tibial metaphysis). These increases, expressed as percent changes from baseline were 11 to 29 percentage points higher than those found in the vehicle-treated group. Additionally, significant increases in trabecular thickness and bone strength were found at the lumbar vertebrae in the highest-dose group. Taken together, the marked bone-building effects achieved in this short-term monkey study suggest that sclerostin inhibition represents a promising new therapeutic approach for medical conditions where increases in bone formation might be desirable, such as in fracture healing and osteoporosis.
Ominsky MS, Vlasseros F, Jolette J, Smith SY…
J. Bone Miner. Res. May 2010
Single-dose, placebo-controlled, randomized study of AMG 785, a sclerostin monoclonal antibody.
Sclerostin, an osteocyte-secreted protein, negatively regulates osteoblasts and inhibits bone formation. In this first-in-human study, a sclerostin monoclonal antibody (AMG 785) was administered to healthy men and postmenopausal women. In this phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending, single-dose study, 72 healthy subjects received AMG 785 or placebo (3:1) subcutaneously (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 5, or 10 mg/kg) or intravenously (1 or 5 mg/kg). Depending on dose, subjects were followed for up to 85 days. The effects of AMG 785 on safety and tolerability (primary objectives) and pharmacokinetics, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (secondary objectives) were evaluated. AMG 785 generally was well tolerated. One treatment-related serious adverse event of nonspecific hepatitis was reported and was resolved. No deaths or study discontinuations occurred. AMG 785 pharmacokinetics were nonlinear with dose. Dose-related increases in the bone-formation markers procollagen type 1 N-propeptide (P1NP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and osteocalcin were observed, along with a dose-related decrease in the bone-resorption marker serum C-telopeptide (sCTx), resulting in a large anabolic window. In addition, statistically significant increases in bone mineral density of up to 5.3% at the lumbar spine and 2.8% at the total hip compared with placebo were observed on day 85. Six subjects in the higher-dose groups developed anti-AMG 785 antibodies, 2 of which were neutralizing, with no discernible effect on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. In summary, single doses of AMG 785 generally were well tolerated, and the data support further clinical investigation of sclerostin inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for conditions that could benefit from increased bone formation.
Padhi D, Jang G, Stouch B, Fang L…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Jan 2011
A randomized, double-blind phase 2 clinical trial of blosozumab, a sclerostin antibody, in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.
Sclerostin, a SOST protein secreted by osteocytes, negatively regulates formation of mineralized bone matrix and bone mass. We report the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter phase 2 clinical trial of blosozumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeted against sclerostin, in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Postmenopausal women with a lumbar spine T-score -2.0 to -3.5, inclusive, were randomized to subcutaneous blosozumab 180 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W), 180 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W), 270 mg Q2W, or matching placebo for 1 year, with calcium and vitamin D. Serial measurements of spine and hip BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover were performed. Overall, 120 women were enrolled in the study (mean age 65.8 years, mean lumbar spine T-score -2.8). Blosozumab treatment resulted in statistically significant dose-related increases in spine, femoral neck, and total hip BMD as compared with placebo. In the highest dose group, BMD increases from baseline reached 17.7% at the spine, and 6.2% at the total hip. Biochemical markers of bone formation increased rapidly during blosozumab treatment, and trended toward pretreatment levels by study end. However, bone specific alkaline phosphatase remained higher than placebo at study end in the highest-dose group. CTx, a biochemical marker of bone resorption, decreased early in blosozumab treatment to a concentration less than that of the placebo group by 2 weeks, and remained reduced throughout blosozumab treatment. Mild injection site reactions were reported more frequently with blosozumab than placebo. In conclusion, treatment of postmenopausal women with an antibody targeted against sclerostin resulted in substantial increases in spine and hip BMD. These results support further study of blosozumab as a potential anabolic therapy for osteoporosis.
Recker RR, Benson CT, Matsumoto T, Bolognese MA…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Feb 2015
PMID: 25196993 | Free Full Text
Resveratrol treatment delays growth plate fusion and improves bone growth in female rabbits.
Trans-resveratrol (RES), naturally produced by many plants, has a structure similar to synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol, but any effect on bone growth has not yet been clarified. Pre-pubertal ovary-intact New Zealand white rabbits received daily oral administration of either vehicle (control) or RES (200 mg/kg) until growth plate fusion occurred. Bone growth and growth plate size were longitudinally monitored by X-ray imaging, while at the endpoint, bone length was assessed by a digital caliper. In addition, pubertal ovariectomized (OVX) rabbits were treated with vehicle, RES or estradiol cypionate (positive control) for 7 or 10 weeks and fetal rat metatarsal bones were cultured in vitro with RES (0.03 µM-50 µM) and followed for up to 19 days. In ovary-intact rabbits, sixteen-week treatment with RES increased tibiae and vertebrae bone growth and subsequently improved final length. In OVX rabbits, RES delayed fusion of the distal tibia, distal femur and proximal tibia epiphyses and femur length and vertebral bone growth increased when compared with controls. Histomorphometrical analysis showed that RES-treated OVX rabbits had a wider distal femur growth plate, enlarged resting zone, increased number/size of hypertrophic chondrocytes, increased height of the hypertrophic zone, and suppressed chondrocyte expression of VEGF and laminin. In cultured fetal rat metatarsal bones, RES stimulated growth at 0.3 µM while at higher concentrations (10 μM and 50 μM) growth was inhibited. We conclude that RES has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth. The effect was associated with a delay of growth plate fusion resulting in increased final length. These effects were accompanied by a profound suppression of VEGF and laminin expression suggesting that impairment of growth plate vascularization might be an underlying mechanism.
Karimian E, Tamm C, Chagin AS, Samuelsson K…
PLoS ONE 2013
PMID: 23840780 | Free Full Text
Effect of low-dose alendronate treatment on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose alendronate (ALN) treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis.
This study was a large-sample, randomized, open-label, prospective, multicenter, clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up. A total of 639 postmenopausal women (aged 62.2 ± 7.0 y) with osteopenia or osteoporosis were randomized into two groups: low-dose ALN (70 mg every two weeks) and standard-dose ALN (70 mg weekly). All patients were also supplemented with calcium (600 mg) and vitamin D3 (125 IU) daily. BMD (measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; Hologic and Lunar) and levels of serum bone turnover markers (bone resorption marker, carboxy-telopeptide of type I collagen; bone formation marker, alkaline phosphatase) were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. BMD and bone turnover markers were compared between the baseline and the end of treatment, and the changes in BMD and bone turnover markers were also compared between the low-dose ALN group and the standard-dose ALN group.
No significant differences in age, years since menopause, body mass index, BMD, 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, and serum biochemical markers were found at baseline between the two dose groups. A total of 558 (87.3%) and 540 (84.5%) women completed the treatment at the 6th and 12th months, respectively. After the 12-month treatment, lumbar spine and hip BMD increased and serum bone turnover markers decreased significantly in both of the treatment groups (P < 0.01), and no differences in percentage changes in BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and hip were found between the low-dose group (5.60%, 3.87%, and 3.28%, respectively) and the standard-dose group (5.07%, 2.93%, and 3.80%, respectively; P > 0.05). However, levels of serum alkaline phosphatase and carboxy-telopeptide of type I collagen in the standard-dose group decreased moderately compared with those in the low-dose group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). The women tolerated the two doses of ALN quite well. Adverse effects were similar in the two groups.
Treatment with low-dose ALN (70 mg every two weeks) in women with postmenopausal osteopenia or osteoporosis effectively increases lumbar spine and hip BMD, similar to treatment with standard-dose ALN. Low-dose ALN may be a cost-effective and safe protocol for treating osteopenia or osteoporosis in Chinese women.
Li M, Zhang ZL, Liao EY, Chen DC…
Menopause Jan 2013
The prebiotic effect of Anoectochilus formosanus and its consequences on bone health.
The present study evaluated the prebiotic effect of a standardised aqueous extract of Anoectochilus formosanus (SAEAF) and its effects on osteoporosis in ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were randomly divided into five groups and orally treated with water, SAEAF (200 and 400 mg/kg daily) and inulin (400 mg/kg daily) for 12 weeks. The sham group was orally treated with water. The SAEAF treatment enhanced the number of faecal bifidobacteria in OVX rats. The results of a Ca-balance experiment showed that SAEAF increased apparent Ca absorption and retention. The OVX rats were killed after SAEAF treatment lasting 12 weeks. The SAEAF decreased the caecal pH values and increased the caecal wall weight, caecal mucosa calbindin-D9k mRNA expression, free-Ca concentration and levels of SCFA in the caecum. The mineral content, density and biomechanical strength of bones were lower in OVX rats than the sham group, but these bone losses were prevented by SAEAF administration. Microtomography scanning showed that the SAEAF-treated rats had higher trabecular bone volume than the OVX rats. These results suggest that SAEAF prevented bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency in the rats.
Yang LC, Wu JB, Lu TJ, Lin WC
Br. J. Nutr. May 2013
Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.
An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet.
Hakki SS, Dundar N, Kayis SA, Hakki EE…
J Trace Elem Med Biol Apr 2013
Improved adherence with PTH(1-84) in an extension trial for 24 months results in enhanced BMD gains in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of PTH(1-84) treatment over 24 months followed by 12 months discontinuation on BMD, bone turnover markers, fractures and the impact of adherence on efficacy.
There is limited information about the effect of PTH(1-84) after 18 months and limited data about the impact of compliance on response to anabolic therapy.
Seven hundred and eighty-one subjects who received active PTH(1-84) in the Treatment of Osteoporosis with Parathyroid hormone trial for approximately 18 months were entered into a 6-month open-label extension. Thereafter, they were followed for 12 additional months after discontinuation of treatment. Endpoints examined included changes in BMD and biochemical markers.
PTH(1-84) treatment over 24 months increased BMD at the lumbar spine by 6.8% above baseline (p<0.05). The total corresponding BMD increases at the hip and femoral neck were 1.1 and 2.2% above baseline. Larger increases in spine BMD were observed in participants with ≥80% adherence to daily injections of PTH(1-84) (8.3% in adherent vs 4.9% in poorly adherent patients). Total hip BMD gains were 1.7% in adherent vs 0.6% in poorly adherent participants. Markers of bone turnover (BSAP and NTx) peaked 6 months after starting PTH(1-84) treatment and declined slowly but remained above baseline at 24 months. After discontinuation of PTH(1-84) treatment (at 24 months), bone turnover markers returned to near baseline levels by 30 months. The adherent group sustained significantly fewer fractures than the poorly adherent group.
PTH(1-84) treatment over 24 months results in continued increases in lumbar spine BMD. Adherence to treatment with PTH(1-84) for up to 24 months is also associated with greater efficacy.
Black DM, Bilezikian JP, Greenspan SL, Wüster C…
Osteoporos Int Apr 2013