Category Archives: Coffee

Coffee Not Associated with Bone Density in Premenopausal Korean Women


Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in korean premenopausal women.

Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women.
Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry.
Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927).
This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women.

Choi EJ, Kim KH, Koh YJ, Lee JS…
Korean J Fam Med Jan 2014
PMID: 24501665 | Free Full Text

 This study shows that high consumption of coffee is not associated with increased risk for impaired bone health. Our results are in agreement with some recent cross-sectional studies showing no association between caffeine and impaired bone health, and in disagreement with others which focused on BMD of various skeletal sites.22-26) Habitual dietary caffeine intake was found not to be associated with impaired bone health in healthy postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study in Pennsylvania (USA), on the basis of self-reported questionnaires collected in 2000.23) In elderly men and women from the population-based Framingham Osteoporosis Study, the same results were found.24) These studies are in agreement with our study. Although the frequency consumed and the species of coffee could be significantly affected by cultural differences and socioeconomic status, and the metabolism of caffeine and other constituents can be affected by genetic predisposition, our results in Korean premenopausal women did not appear to contradict those of previous studies.

The role of coffee intake in bone health, however, seems controversial. There are several studies showing a negative association between caffeine and bone health. Daily intake of 330 mg of caffeine, equivalent to 4 cups (600 mL) of coffee, or more may be associated with a modestly increased risk of osteoporotic fractures, especially in women with a low intake of calcium, as shown in a study on Swedish women aged 40 to 76 years.4) Also, in a cohort study, Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (P = 0.04) compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.24)

Caffeine >330 mg/day Associated with Fractures in Swedish Women


Coffee, tea and caffeine consumption in relation to osteoporotic fracture risk in a cohort of Swedish women.

Consumption of coffee and tea, and total intake of caffeine has been claimed to be associated with osteoporotic fracture risk. However, results of earlier studies lack consistency.
We examined this relation in a cohort of 31,527 Swedish women aged 40-76 years at baseline in 1988. The consumption of coffee, caffeinated tea and the intake of caffeine were estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariate-adjusted hazards ratios (HRs) of fractures with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models.
During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, we observed 3,279 cases with osteoporotic fractures. The highest (>330 mg/day) compared with the lowest (<200 mg/day) quintile of caffeine intake was associated with a modestly increased risk of fracture: HR 1.20 (95% CI: 1.07-1.35). A high coffee consumption significantly increased the risk of fracture (p for trend 0.002), whereas tea drinking was not associated with risk. The increased risk of fracture with both a high caffeine intake and coffee consumption was confined to women with a low calcium intake (<700 mg/day): HR 1.33 (95% CI: 1.07-1.65) with > or =4 cups (600 ml)/day of coffee compared to <1 cup (150 ml)/day. The same comparison but risk estimated for women with a high propensity for fractures (> or =2 fracture types) revealed a HR of 1.88 (95% CI: 1.17-3.00).
In conclusion, our results indicate that a daily intake of 330 mg of caffeine, equivalent to 4 cups (600 ml) of coffee, or more may be associated with a modestly increased risk of osteoporotic fractures, especially in women with a low intake of calcium.

Hallström H, Wolk A, Glynn A, Michaëlsson K
Osteoporos Int 2006
PMID: 16758142

Coffee at ≥ 4 Cups Associated with Lower Bone Density, but Not Fractures


Long-term coffee consumption in relation to fracture risk and bone mineral density in women.

High consumption of coffee has been suggested to reduce the risk of some late-onset diseases and death but also to contribute to the development of osteoporotic fractures. Results of previous fracture studies have been inconsistent, and a comprehensive study is needed. The longitudinal population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 61,433 women born in 1914-1948, was followed up from 1987 through 2008. Coffee consumption was assessed with repeated food frequency questionnaires. During follow-up, 14,738 women experienced fracture of any type, and 3,871 had a hip fracture. In a subcohort (n = 5,022), bone density was measured and osteoporosis determined (n = 1,012). After multivariable adjustment, there was no evidence of a higher rate of any fracture (hazard ratio per 200 mL coffee = 0.99; 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.00) or hip fracture (hazard ratio per 200 mL coffee = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.00) with increasing coffee consumption. A high coffee intake (≥4 cups daily) versus a low intake (<1 cup daily) was associated with a 2%-4% lower bone density, depending on site (P < 0.001), but the odds ratio for osteoporosis was only 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.87). Thus, high coffee consumption was associated with a small reduction in bone density that did not translate into an increased risk of fracture.

Hallström H, Byberg L, Glynn A, Lemming EW…
Am. J. Epidemiol. Sep 2013
PMID: 23880351

Tea, but Not Coffee, Reduces Hip Fracture


Coffee, tea, and the risk of hip fracture: a meta-analysis.

The present meta-analysis shows no clear association between coffee consumption and the risk of hip fractures. There was a nonlinear association between tea consumption and the risk of hip fracture. Compared to no tea consumption, drinking 1-4 cups of tea daily was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture.
Prospective cohort and case-control studies have suggested that coffee and tea consumption may be associated with the risk of hip fracture; the results have, however, been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between coffee and tea consumption and the risk of hip fracture.
We performed systematic searches using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID until February 20, 2013, without limits of language or publication year. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using random-effects models throughout all analyses. We conducted categorical, dose-response, heterogeneity, publication bias, and subgroup analyses.
Our study was based on 195,992 individuals with 9,958 cases of hip fractures from 14 studies, including six cohort and eight case-control studies. The pooled RRs of hip fractures for the highest vs. the lowest categories of coffee and tea consumption were 0.94 (95% CI 0.71-1.17) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.66-1.02), respectively. For the dose-response analysis, we found evidence of a nonlinear association between tea consumption and the risk of hip fracture (p(nonlinearity) < 0.01). Compared to no tea consumption, 1-4 cups of tea per day may reduce the risk of hip fracture by 28% (0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.88 for 1-2 cups/day), 37% (0.63; 95% CI 0.32-0.94 for 2-3 cups/day), and 21% (0.79; 95% CI 0.62-0.96 for 3-4 cups/day).
We found no significant association between coffee consumption and the risk of hip fracture. A nonlinear association emerged between tea consumption and the risk of hip fracture; individuals drinking 1-4 cups of tea per day exhibited a lower risk of hip fractures than those who drank no tea. The association between 5 daily cups of tea, or more, and hip fracture risk should be investigated.

Sheng J, Qu X, Zhang X, Zhai Z…
Osteoporos Int Jan 2014
PMID: 24196722

Coffee Delays Bone Repair in Rats


Effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of hydroxyapatite implant.

The present study aims to assess the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and/or coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of a dense hydroxyapatite (DHA) implant in rats. For this study, 20 male rats were divided into four groups (n = 5): CT (control) group, CE (coffee) group, CI (cigarette) group and CC (coffee + cigarette) group. During 16 weeks, animals in the CI group were exposed to cigarette smoke inhalation equivalent to 6 cigarettes per day; specimens in the CE group drank coffee as liquid diet; and rats in the CC group were submitted to both substances. In the 6th week a 5 mm slit in the parietal bone and a 4 mm slit in the tibia were performed on the left side: the former was left open while the latter received a DHA implant. As soon as surgeries were finished, the animals returned to their original protocols and after 10 weeks of exposure they were euthanised (ethically sacrificed) and the mentioned bones collected for histological processing. Data showed that exposure to cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption did not interfere in weight gain and that solid and liquid diet consumption was satisfactory. Rats in the CC group showed a decrease in bone neoformation around the tibial DHA implant (31.8 ± 2.8) as well as in bone formation in the parietal slit (28.6 ± 2.2). On their own, cigarette smoke inhalation or coffee consumption also led to diminished bone neoformation around the implant and delayed the bone repair process in relation to the CT group. However, reduction in the bone repair process was accentuated with exposure to both cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption in this study.

Andrade AR, Sant’Ana DC, Mendes JA, Moreira M…
Braz J Biol Feb 2013
PMID: 23644799 | Free Full Text