Category Archives: Butyrate

Butyrate Stimulates Bone Formation and Suppresses Osteoclasts In Vitro


Sodium butyrate stimulates mineralized nodule formation and osteoprotegerin expression by human osteoblasts.

Butyric acid (sodium butyrate; BA) is a major metabolic by-product of main periodontopathic bacteria present in subgingival plaque. In the present study, we examined the effects of BA on cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity, mineralized nodule formation, extracellular matrix protein expression, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in normal human osteoblasts.
The cells were cultured with 0, 10(-8), 10(-6) or 10(-4)M BA for up to 12 days. Mineralized nodule formation was detected by alizarin red staining, and the calcium content in mineralized nodules was determined using a calcium assay kit. The gene and protein expression levels for type I collagen, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), M-CSF, and OPG were examined using real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively.
Mineralized nodule formation and the calcium content of mineralized nodules were increased by BA in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and ALPase activity were not affected by the addition of BA. Following the addition of 10(-4)M BA, the expression levels of BSP, OPN, and OPG increased, whereas the expression levels of type I collagen and M-CSF were not markedly affected.
These results suggest that BA stimulates bone formation by increasing the production of BSP and OPN, whereas it suppresses osteoclast differentiation by increasing the production of OPG by human osteoblasts.

Katono T, Kawato T, Tanabe N, Suzuki N…
Arch. Oral Biol. Oct 2008
PMID: 18406397

Review: FOS and Inulin, Minerals and Bones


Inulin, oligofructose and mineral metabolism – experimental data and mechanism.

Numerous investigations performed in animal models in the past 10 years have shown repeatedly that non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO), such as inulin, oligofructose or transgalacto-oligosaccharides (TOS), stimulate mineral absorption, mainly calcium and magnesium. Long-term beneficial effects on bone health have been indicated by accumulation of bone mineral content in growing rats or prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized rats. However, bone mineral content or density are not necessarily associated with bone quality. In recent studies both oligofructose and calcium prevented loss of trabecular bone area induced by oestrogen deficiency, this, however, occurred at different trabecular shapes. The effects of NDO on mineral metabolism may be based on the enhancement of passive and active mineral transport across the intestinal epithelium, mediated by an increase in certain metabolites of the intestinal flora and a reduction of pH. The possible impact of short-chain fatty acids, butyrate in particular, and of polyamines on the stimulation of mineral absorption capacity, and the interaction of oligofructose and antibiotics is discussed.

Scholz-Ahrens KE, Schrezenmeir J
Br. J. Nutr. May 2002
PMID: 12088516