Category Archives: Naringin

Naringin Reverses Bone Loss, Increasing Density, Volume, and Thickness in Ovariectomized Rats


Naringin promotes osteoblast differentiation and effectively reverses ovariectomy-associated osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is a common pathological condition that influences 20 % of women over 50 years of age. This condition decreases bone strength and increases the risk of bone fracture. Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and an active compound extracted from a Chinese herbal medicine (Rhizoma Drynariae). Studies have shown that naringin possesses many pharmacological effects. The current study evaluated the influence of naringin on osteoblastic cell differentiation and proliferation, and assessed its therapeutic effects on a rat osteoporosis model.
The proliferation, differentiation, and function of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were determined following treatment with various concentrations of naringin. Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic rats were orally administered naringin daily at low, medium, and high dosages, while a control group received PBS for 2 months. Femoral X-ray images and microCT scans were used for bone mineral density (BMD) and BV/TV (bone volume/total volume) analyses, and histological assessments of left tibiae were employed to check for changes in trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) in the groups.
Naringin was effective at enhancing the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and a concentration of 10 μg/ml prompted the highest levels of osteocalcin expression among the in vitro study groups. There appeared to be a delayed response pattern of BMSCs to the naringin treatment. Naringin also effectively reversed OVX-induced bone loss via increasing BMD, bone volume, and trabecular thickness. The medium dose (300 mg/kg) appeared to be the optimal dosage for delivering satisfactory therapeutic effects.
Naringin promotes the proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs, and increases osteocalcin expression. Naringin also effectively reverses ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. The study suggests that naringin administration may represent an effective treatment for osteoporosis.

Li N, Jiang Y, Wooley PH, Xu Z…
J Orthop Sci May 2013
PMID: 23553541

Naringin Works Like Statins to Increase Bone Formation In Vitro


Effect of naringin on bone cells.

Statin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, was shown to increase BMP-2 gene expression for bone formation, by blocking the mevalonate pathway in cholesterol production. We investigated the effect of naringin, a flavonoid available commonly in citrus fruits, which was also a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, in UMR 106 osteoblastic cell line in vitro. The control group consisted of cells cultured without any intervention for different time intervals (24 h, 48 h, and 72 h), whereas the experimental (naringin) group consisted of cells cultured with naringin of different concentrations (0.001 micromol/L, 0.01 micromol/L, and 0.1 micromol/L) for the same time intervals of the control. Colorimetric Tetrazolium (MTT) assay, total protein content assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity were used to measure the cellular activities. Results for the naringin group showed an increase in MTT assay compared with the control and the effect was dose dependent. At high concentration (0.1 micromol), the increases ranged from 60% to 80%. In the total protein content assay, naringin also showed an increase compared with control and the effect was also dose dependent. At high concentration (0.1 micromol), the increases ranged from 9% to 20%. In the alkaline phosphatase activity assay, naringin at high concentration (0.1 micromol) significantly increased the activity up to 20%. In conclusion, naringin significantly increased bone cell activities in vitro. This is the first study specifically attempted to investigate the effect of naringin on bone cell activities. Besides statin, this provided another example of mevalonate pathway blockage in the cholesterol production pathway by HMG-CoA reductase inhibition will increase the bone cell activities.

Wong RW, Rabie AB
J. Orthop. Res. Nov 2006
PMID: 16944474

Naringin and Neoeriocitrin Stimulate Osteoblasts In Vitro


Stimulative activity of Drynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm. extracts and two of its flavonoids on the proliferation of osteoblastic like cells.

The osteoblastic activity of extracts of Drynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm. rhizome was assayed in the UMR106 cell line cultured in vitro. An ethanol extract and its fractions were added to the cell culture at different concentrations. Osteoblastic proliferation stimulating activity was determined using the MTT method. The ethanol extract, and its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions exhibited stimulating activity. Two active constituents were isolated from n-butanol fraction by bioassay-directed isolation, and identified as naringin and neoeriocitrin. The latter is reported for the first time from this herbal medicine.

Li F, Meng F, Xiong Z, Li Y…
Pharmazie Nov 2006
PMID: 17152991

Naringin Inhibits Osteoporosis Induced by Retinoic Acid in Rats


Anti-osteoporosis activity of naringin in the retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis model.

Isoflavonoids isolated from plants have been confirmed to fight osteoporosis and promote bone health. However, few studies have been conducted to describe the anti-osteoporosis activity of botanical flavonone. Based on the experimental outcomes, we demonstrated the ability of naringin to fight osteoporosis in vitro. We developed a retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis model of rats to assess whether naringin has similar bioactivity against osteoporosis in vitro. After a 14-day supplement of retinoic acid to induce osteoporosis, SD rats were administered naringin. A blood test showed that naringin-treated rats experienced significantly lower activity of serum alkaline phosphatase and had higher femur bone mineral density, compared to untreated rats. All three dosages of naringin improved the decrease in bone weight coefficient, the length and the diameter of the bone, the content of bone ash, calcium, and phosphorus content induced by retinoic acid. The data of histomorphological metrology of naringin groups showed no difference as compared to normal control rats. These outcomes suggest that naringin offer a potential in the management of osteoporosis in vitro.

Wei M, Yang Z, Li P, Zhang Y…
Am. J. Chin. Med. 2007
PMID: 17708632

Naringin Enhances Proliferation of Human Bone Cells In Vitro


Effects of naringin on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone mesenchymal stem cell.

Rhizoma drynariae is used commonly in the treatment of osteoporosis and bone nonunion in traditional Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological research indicates that naringin is the main effective component of rhizoma drynariae, which can induce the expression of the osteogenic marker in the osteoblast cell line. However, no former study has described its effect on bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). In our experiment, we co-cultured human BMSCs with different concentrations of naringin solution, then the osteogenic differentiation markers and proliferation ability were analyzed. The results indicated that a certain concentration (1-100 microg/ml) of the naringin solution may enhance the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs. Also, our research explains excellently the anti-osteoporotic and bone nonunion treatment mechanism of rhizoma drynariae, thus contributing to the exploration of osteogenic differentiation agents from Chinese herbs.

Zhang P, Peng-Zhang , Dai KR, Yan SG…
Eur. J. Pharmacol. Apr 2009
PMID: 19326565

Naringin and Drynariae Rhizoma Reduce Resorption and Enhanced Osteoblasts in Rats


Osteogenic effect of Drynariae rhizoma extracts and Naringin on MC3T3-E1 cells and an induced rat alveolar bone resorption model.

To investigate if Drynariae rhizoma (DR) and its main ingredient Naringin could reduce alveolar bone loss by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.
The effect of DR water (DRWE), ethanolic extract (DREE), and Naringin on MC3T3-E1 cells was evaluated respectively by MTT method and by measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity) as well as the level of osteocalcin in medium. Bone mineral density (BMD) detection, osteoclast counting by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining, and histopathological analysis were performed in an induced rat model of alveolar bone resorption after gastric perfusion with DR extracts or Naringin.
DRWE and Naringin effectively increased the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, whilst DREE and Naringin enhanced the differentiation of osteoblastic cells. The in vivo study indicated an elevated BMD value in the tooth-periodontal tissues from DRWE, DREE and Naringin treated groups after 10, 20 and 30 days of perfusion (P<0.05). In DRWE treated group, the number of osteoclasts at days 10, 20 and 30 decreased remarkably as compared to the corresponding negative controls (P<0.05), and no osteoclast could be found at day 30. New non-calcified bone-like matrix attached by osteoblasts at the root furcation was also shown.
DR could be a supplementary medicine for periodontal therapy as it could reduce bone resorption in rat model of alveolar bone resorption and exert osteogenic effect on osteoblasts.

Chen LL, Lei LH, Ding PH, Tang Q…
Arch. Oral Biol. Dec 2011
PMID: 21764032

Naringin Inhibits Resorption In Vitro


Naringin abrogates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via the inhibition of RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK activation.

Osteolytic bone diseases including osteoporosis are commonly accompanied with enhanced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Naringin, a natural occurring flavonoid has been found to protect against retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis and improve bone quality in rats. Here, we showed that naringin perturbs osteoclast formation and bone resorption by inhibiting RANK-mediated NF-κB and ERK signaling. Naringin suppressed gene expression of key osteoclast marker genes. Naringin was found to inhibit RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB by suppressing RANKL-mediated IκB-α degradation. In addition, naringin inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK. This study identifies naringin as an inhibitor for osteoclast formation and bone resorption, and provides evidence that natural compounds such as naringin might be beneficial as an alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of osteolysis.

Ang ES, Yang X, Chen H, Liu Q…
FEBS Lett. Sep 2011
PMID: 21835177

Naringin Graft Material Enhances Bone Growth in Rabbits


A novel porous gelatin composite containing naringin for bone repair.

As Gu-Sui-Bu (GSB) is a commonly used Chinese medical herb for therapeutic treatment of bone-related diseases, naringin is its main active component. This study elucidates how various concentrations of naringin solution affect the activities of bone cells, based on colorimetric, alkaline phosphatase activity, nodule formation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays to determine the optimal concentration of naringin. GGT composite was obtained by combining genipin cross-linked gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate. GGTN composite was prepared by mixing GGT composite with the predetermined concentration of naringin. Porous GGT and GGTN composites were then made using a salt-leaching procedure. The potential of the composites in repairing bone defects was evaluated and compared in vivo by using the biological response of rabbit calvarial bone to these composites. Consequently, the most effective concentration of naringin was 10 mg/mL, which significantly enhanced the proliferation of osteoblasts, osteoclast activity, and nodule formation without affecting the alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts and mitochondrial activity of mixed-bone cells. Radiographic analysis revealed greater new bone ingrowth in the GGTN composite than in the GGT composite at the same implantation time. Therefore, the GGTN composite is highly promising for use as a bone graft material.

Chen KY, Lin KC, Chen YS, Yao CH
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013
PMID: 23431335 | Free Full Text

Neoeriocitrin More Active Than Naringin in Bone Cells


Comparison of neoeriocitrin and naringin on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1.

Naringin is considered the main effective compound of Drynaria Rhizome, which is used commonly in the treatment of osteoporosis in traditional Chinese medicine. However, we found neoeriocitrin, a new compound isolated from Drynaria Rhizome, showed a better activity than naringin on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1. Both neoeriocitrin and naringin exhibited the best effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation at concentration of 2μg/ml. Neoeriocitrin more significantly improved proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as up-regulated Runx2, COLI and OCN expression by 56%, 37% and 14% respectively than naringin. Furthermore, neoeriocitrin could rescue the inhibition effect of cell differentiation induced by PD98059 to some degree. Therefore, neoeriocitrin may be a new promising candidate drug for treatment of osteoporosis.

Li L, Zeng Z, Cai G
Phytomedicine Aug 2011
PMID: 21741227

Naringin Improves Bone properties Through Estrogen Receptors in Ovariectomized Mice


Naringin improves bone properties in ovariectomized mice and exerts oestrogen-like activities in rat osteoblast-like (UMR-106) cells.

Naringin, a flavanone glycoside in citrus fruits, has been recently reported to stimulate bone formation in vitro and in vivo. The present study was designed to determine if naringin could exert oestrogen-like protective actions in bone.
Young C57/BL6J mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated orally with naringin (0.2 or 0.4 mg*g(-1)*day(-1)), 17beta-oestradiol (2 microg*g(-1)*day(-1)) or its vehicle for 6 weeks. Bone mineral densities (BMD) and polar stresss-train index (SSI) were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Rat osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were co-incubated with the oestrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182780 to determine if the effects of naringin on osteoblastic functions were ER dependent. Functional transactivation of ERalpha and ERbeta as well as ERalpha phosphorylation by naringin were also studied.
Naringin at 0.4 mg*g(-1)*day(-1) increased BMD at trabecular-rich bone in OVX mice. Naringin (at both doses) significantly increased SSI at distal femur and lumbar spine and increased biomechanical strength (ultimate load and energy for breaking) at tibia diaphysis in OVX mice. The stimulatory effects of naringin on osteoblastic functions could be abolished by co-incubation with ICI 182780 in UMR-106 cells. Naringin failed to stimulate ERalpha- or ERbeta-mediated oestrogen response element-dependent luciferase activity but could significantly induce ERalpha phosphorylation at serine 118, in UMR-106 cells.
Naringin was effective in protecting against OVX-induced bone loss in mice and its actions might be mediated through ligand-independent activation of ER in osteoblastic cells.

Pang WY, Wang XL, Mok SK, Lai WP…
Br. J. Pharmacol. Apr 2010
PMID: 20397301 | Free Full Text