Category Archives: Glycation

Bread Crust Does Not Negatively Affect Calcium in Rats


Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

Roncero-Ramos I, Delgado-Andrade C, Haro A, Ruiz-Roca B…
Amino Acids Jun 2013
PMID: 22109787

Cataracts are Associated with Osteoporosis


Are cataracts associated with osteoporosis?

Calcium is considered an important factor in the development of both osteoporosis and cataract. This study evaluated the association between osteoporosis and cataracts.
To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis among patients undergoing cataract surgery, and the association between the two.
This was a retrospective observational case-control study, conducted in the Central District of Clalit Health Services (a district of the largest health maintenance organization in Israel). All Clalit members in the district older than 50 years who underwent cataract surgery from 2000 to 2007 (n=12,984) and 25,968 age- and sex-matched controls comprised the sample. Electronic medical records of all patients in the study were reviewed. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of osteoporosis and the odds ratio of having osteoporosis among cataract patients compared with controls.
Demographically, 41.8% were men with a mean age of 68.7 ± 8.2 years. A logistic regression model for osteoporosis showed that age, female sex, higher socioeconomic class, smoking, chronic renal failure, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cataract are all associated with increased prevalence of osteoporosis. Obesity is a protective factor for osteoporosis. In all age-groups, osteoporosis was more prevalent in cataract patients than in the control group.
Among other well-known risk factors, osteoporosis is associated with the presence of cataracts. Common pathophysiological associations with both conditions, such as calcium imbalance, hormonal abnormalities, and shared genetic predisposition, are discussed.

Nemet AY, Hanhart J, Kaiserman I, Vinker S
Clin Ophthalmol 2013
PMID: 24204110 | Free Full Text

We found a significant association between cataract and osteoporosis among women of all age-groups and in men older than 75 years. Smoking,8 obesity,9 chronic renal failure,10 hyperthyroidism,11 rheumatoid arthritis,12 inflammatory bowel diseases13 are well known to be associated with osteoporosis and have been reported on extensively. Obesity as a protective factor has already been reported.14 To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show this association. This section focuses on calcium imbalance as a common key event, hormonal abnormalities associated with both conditions, and shared ultrastructural abnormalities found in cataract and osteoporosis.

Glycation Suppresses Bone Formation


Advanced glycation end products suppress osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cells by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that AGE2 or AGE3 inhibited osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of mouse stromal ST2 cells, and also induced apoptosis and decreased cell growth. Although quality management for synthesized proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for the maturation of osteoblasts, the effects of AGEs on ER stress in osteoblast lineage are unknown. We thus examined roles of ER stress in AGE2- or AGE3-induced suppression of osteoblastogenesis of ST2 cells. An ER stress inducer, thapsigargin (TG), induced osteoblastic differentiation of ST2 cells by increasing the levels of Osterix, type 1 collagen (Col1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA. AGE2 or AGE3 suppressed the levels of ER stress sensors such as IRE1α, ATF6 and OASIS, while they increased the levels of PERK and its downstream molecules, ATF4. A reduction in PERK level by siRNA did not affect the AGEs-induced suppression of the levels of Osterix, Col1 and OCN mRNA. In conclusion, AGEs inhibited the osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cells by suppressing ER stress sensors and accumulating abnormal proteins in the cells. This process might accelerate AGEs-induced suppression of bone formation found in diabetes mellitus.

Tanaka K, Yamaguchi T, Kaji H, Kanazawa I…
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Aug 2013
PMID: 23933252

AGE Consumption Increases Resorption in Rats


Effects of model Maillard compounds on bone characteristics and functionality.

BACKGROUND: Physical and biomechanical properties of bone can be affected by non-enzymatic crosslinks, which are implicated in bone pathologies such as osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of the consumption of model Maillard reaction product (MRP) from glucose-lysine heated for 90 min at 150 °C (GL90) on bone composition and features. Rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 30 g kg(-1) GL90 for 88 days. Food consumption and the animals’ body weights were monitored. After sacrifice, the femur, pelvic bone and tibia were removed for analysis of their composition and physical and biomechanical properties. RESULTS: The organic matrix of the femur and the density of the pelvic bone decreased after MRP intake, whereas pentosidine content increased greatly with respect to the control group (41.7 ± 9.9 vs 171.4 ± 3.3 mmol mol(-1) collagen). The rising level of C-telopeptide degradation products from type I collagen (β-CTX) suggested a possible situation of increased bone resorption and/or higher turnover. CONCLUSION: In conjunction, the detrimental effect on the organic matrix, the situation of higher resorption and/or bone turnover indicated by the β-CTX values and the high pentosidine content in bone provoked negative consequences on certain mechanical properties such as the ability to withstand force and absorb energy without failure.

Roncero-Ramos I, Delgado-Andrade C, Rufián-Henares JA, Carballo J…
J. Sci. Food Agric. Feb 2013
PMID: 23420603