Category Archives: Calorie Restriction

CR Suppresses Bone Formation and Increases Resorption in Obese Rats


Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation.

Shen CL, Zhu W, Gao W, Wang S…
Nutr Res Aug 2013
PMID: 23890357

High-Protein Short-Term Diets are Not Detrimental to Bone


Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to high-protein diets during energy deficit in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

Although consuming dietary protein above current recommendations during energy deficit (ED) preserves lean body mass, concerns have been raised regarding the effects of high-protein diets on bone health. The objective was to determine whether calcium homeostasis and bone turnover are affected by high-protein diets during weight maintenance (WM) and ED.

In a randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial of 32 men and 7 women, volunteers were assigned diets providing protein at 0.8 [Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)], 1.6 (2 × RDA), or 2.4 (3 × RDA) g · kg(-1) · d(-1) for 31 d. Ten days of WM preceded 21 d of ED, during which total daily ED was 40%, achieved by reduced dietary energy intake (∼30%) and increased physical activity (∼10%). The macronutrient composition (protein g · kg(-1) · d(-1) and % fat) was held constant from WM to ED. Calcium absorption (ratio of (44)Ca to (42)Ca) and circulating indexes of bone turnover were determined at day 8 (WM) and day 29 (ED).
Regardless of energy state, mean (±SEM) urinary pH was lower (P < 0.05) at 2 × RDA (6.28 ± 0.05) and 3 × RDA (6.23 ± 0.06) than at the RDA (6.54 ± 0.06). However, protein had no effect on either urinary calcium excretion (P > 0.05) or the amount of calcium retained (P > 0.05). ED decreased serum insulin-like growth factor I concentrations and increased serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (P < 0.01). Remaining markers of bone turnover and whole-body bone mineral density and content were not affected by either the protein level or ED (P > 0.05).
These data demonstrate that short-term consumption of high-protein diets does not disrupt calcium homeostasis and is not detrimental to skeletal integrity.

Cao JJ, Pasiakos SM, Margolis LM, Sauter ER…
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Feb 2014
PMID: 24284444

Zinc Deficiency or Calorie Restriction Impares Bone Development in Weanling Rats


Zinc-deficient rats have more limited bone recovery during repletion than diet-restricted rats.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary zinc deficiency and diet restriction on bone development in growing rats, and to determine whether any adverse effects could be reversed by dietary repletion. Weanling rats were fed either a zinc-deficient diet ad libitum (ZD; <1 mg zinc/kg) or nutritionally complete diet (30 mg zinc/kg) either ad libitum (CTL) or pair-fed to the intake of the ZD group (DR; diet-restricted) for 3 weeks (deficiency phase) and then all groups were fed the zinc-adequate diet ad libitum for 3, 7, or 23 days (repletion phase). Excised femurs were analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and plasma was analyzed for markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (Ratlaps). After the deficiency phase, ZD had lower body weight and reduced femur BMD, zinc, and phosphorus concentrations compared with DR; and these parameters were lower in DR compared with CTL. Femur calcium concentrations were unchanged among the groups. Reduced plasma osteocalcin in ZD and elevated plasma Ratlaps in DR suggested that zinc deficiency limits bone formation while diet restriction accelerates bone resorption activity. After 23 days of repletion, femur size, BMD, and zinc concentrations remained lower in ZD compared with DR and CTL. Body weight and femur phosphorus concentrations remained lower in both ZD and DR compared with CTL after repletion. There were no differences in plasma osteocalcin concentrations after the repletion phase, but the plasma Ratlaps concentrations remained elevated in DR compared with CTL. In summary, both ZD and DR lead to osteopenia during rapid growth, but the mechanisms appear to be due to reduced modeling in ZD and higher turnover in DR. Zinc deficiency was associated with a greater impairment in bone development than diet restriction, and both deficiencies limited bone recovery during repletion in growing rats.

Hosea HJ, Taylor CG, Wood T, Mollard R…
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) Apr 2004
PMID: 15044713

Calorie Restriction Reduces Osteonecrosis in Rats


Dietary restriction reduces the prevalence of osteonecrosis of the caput femoris in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

We investigated the effects of dietary restriction (DR), an experimental intervention known to suppress several strain-specific diseases, on the prevalence of osteonecrosis of the caput femoris in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). At 6 weeks of age, the food intake of DR rats was restricted to 65% of the mean intake of control rats fed ad libitum (AL). Acute osteonecrosis of the caput femoris without reparative tissue response (RTR) was observed at 10 and 15 weeks in both DR and AL groups; no such acute lesion was seen at 20 and 30 weeks. The prevalence of osteonecrosis, osteonecrosis with/without reparative tissue response was significantly reduced in DR rats at 15 and 20 weeks, but not at 10 weeks. DR reduced the body weight by 30% and the length of the femur by 10%. Ossification of the caput femoris, known to be delayed in AL rats compared with Wistar Kyoto rats, was also restored by DR. Our results showed that dietary restriction reduced the prevalence of osteonecrosis and modulated the mechanical factors involved in the lesion. They also indicate that utilization of dietary restriction is a useful research tool for investigating the underlying mechanisms of osteonecrosis of the caput femoris in SHR.

Tomita M, Shimokawa I, Maeda H, Higami Y…
Calcif. Tissue Int. Mar 1999
PMID: 10024387

Calorie Restriction Beneficial in Rats with High Oxidative Stress


Effects of dietary restriction on total body, femoral, and vertebral bone in SENCAR, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice.

Dietary restriction (DR) increases the life span and retards aging, in part, by limiting free radical generation and oxidative damage. DR also reduces body mass, a major determinant of bone mass across the life span. We tested the hypothesis that DR has its most beneficial effects on bone in mouse strains with high free radical generation (sensitive to carcinogenesis [SENCAR] > C57 > DBA) versus the hypothesis that bone mass at weight-bearing sites is determined by body mass in DR and ad libitum (AL)-fed mice. Male mice of each strain were killed at 10 weeks of age (t(0)) or randomized to an AL-fed or 30% DR feeding regimen for 6 months. Food consumption by AL-fed mice was measured daily, and DR mice received 70% of the amount of food consumed by their respective AL-fed mice the previous day. Body fat (%) and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were determined by PIXImus densitometry. There were strain-dependent effects on body mass, crown-to-rump length, percent body fat, and total body, femoral, and vertebral BMD and BMC under all conditions. SENCAR mice were heavier, longer, had larger bones, and generally exhibited higher total body, femoral, and vertebral BMC and BMD than C57 and DBA mice. DR had beneficial effects on BMD and BMC in the vertebrae of the SENCAR mouse model of high free radical generation and in the obese, diabetes-prone C57 mouse model of high end-stage protein glycation. DR DBA and SENCAR mice had lower femoral BMDs and BMCs than their respective AL-fed controls. Regression analysis confirmed linear relationships between total and lean body mass and total body and femoral BMDs and BMCs, suggesting that physiologic adaptation to a lower body mass accounts for the lower femoral bone mineral values observed in DR versus AL-fed mice. Thus, both hypotheses are, at least, partially valid. DR is beneficial in the trabeculae-rich vertebrae of animal models of high oxidant stress, and total/lean body mass determines BMD and BMC in the weight-bearing femur in DR and AL-fed mice.

Brochmann EJ, Duarte ME, Zaidi HA, Murray SS
Metab. Clin. Exp. Oct 2003
PMID: 14564677

Alendronate + Exercise Prevents All Bone Loss During Spaceflight


Bisphosphonates as a supplement to exercise to protect bone during long-duration spaceflight.

We report the results of alendronate ingestion plus exercise in preventing the declines in bone mass and strength and elevated levels of urinary calcium and bone resorption in astronauts during 5.5 months of spaceflight.
This investigation was an international collaboration between NASA and the JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential value of antiresorptive agents to mitigate the well-established bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight.
We report the results from seven International Space Station (ISS) astronauts who spent a mean of 5.5 months on the ISS and who took an oral dose of 70 mg of alendronate weekly starting 3 weeks before flight and continuing throughout the mission. All crewmembers had available for exercise a treadmill, cycle ergometer, and a resistance exercise device. Our assessment included densitometry of multiple bone regions using X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and assays of biomarkers of bone metabolism.
In addition to pre- and post-flight measurements, we compared our results to 18 astronauts who flew ISS missions and who exercised using an early model resistance exercise device, called the interim resistance exercise device, and to 11 ISS astronauts who exercised using the newer advanced resistance exercise device (ARED). Our findings indicate that the ARED provided significant attenuation of bone loss compared with the older device although post-flight decreases in the femur neck and hip remained. The combination of the ARED and bisphosphonate attenuated the expected decline in essentially all indices of altered bone physiology during spaceflight including: DXA-determined losses in bone mineral density of the spine, hip, and pelvis, QCT-determined compartmental losses in trabecular and cortical bone mass in the hip, calculated measures of fall and stance computed bone strength of the hip, elevated levels of bone resorption markers, and urinary excretion of calcium.
The combination of exercise plus an antiresoptive drug may be useful for protecting bone health during long-duration spaceflight.

Leblanc A, Matsumoto T, Jones J, Shapiro J…
Osteoporos Int Jul 2013
PMID: 23334732