Category Archives: EGCG

Green Tea Extract is Bad for Growing Bones in Rats


Long-Term Intake of Green Tea Extract Causes Mal-Conformation of Trabecular Bone Microarchitecture in Growing Rats.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE) intake on bone structural and physiological properties, such as bone mass, trabecular bone microarchitecture, cortical bone geometry, and bone mechanical strength, in growing rats. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into the following four eenoups: standard diet feeding for 85 days (S-CON) or 170 days (L-CON), and GTE diet feeding for 85 days (S-GTE) or 170 days (L-GTE). At the end of the experiment, in addition to measurement of circulating bone formation/resorption markers, bone mass, trabecular bone microarchitecture, and cortical bone geometry were analyzed in the left femur, and bone mechanical strength of the right femur was measured. There was no difference in all bone parameters between the S-CON and S-GTE groups. On the other hand, the L-GTE group showed the decrease in some trabecular bone mass/microarchitecture parameters and no change in cortical bone mass/geometry parameters compared with the L-CON group, and consequently the reduction in bone weight corrected by body weight. There was no difference in bone formation/resorption markers and bone mechanical strength between the S-CON and S-GTE groups and also between the L-CON and L-GTE groups. However, serum leptin levels were significantly lower in the L-GTE group than in the L-CON group. Thus, the long-term GTE intake had negative effects on bone, especially trabecular bone loss and microarchitecture mal-conformation, in growing rats.

Minematsu A, Nishii Y, Imagita H, Sakata S
Calcif. Tissue Int. Nov 2017
PMID: 29103160

Review: Green Tea May Decrease Fractures by Improving Bone Density and Osteoblasts and Suppressing Osteoclasts


Green tea and bone metabolism.

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

Shen CL, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, Wang JS
Nutr Res Jul 2009
PMID: 19700031

Green Tea Prevents Bone Loss in Rats


Protective effect of green tea polyphenols on bone loss in middle-aged female rats.

Recent studies have suggested that green tea polyphenols (GTP) are promising agents for preventing bone loss in women. Findings that GTP supplementation resulted in increased urinary GTP concentrations and bone mass via an increase of antioxidant capacity and/or a decrease of oxidative stress damage suggest a significant role of GTP in bone health of women.
Recent studies suggested that green tea polyphenols (GTP) are promising agents for preventing bone loss in women. However, the mechanism related to the possible protective role of GTP in bone loss is not well understood.
This study evaluated bioavailability, mechanisms, bone mass, and safety of GTP in preventing bone loss in middle-aged rats without (sham, SH) and with ovariectomy (OVX).

A 16-week study of 2 (SH vs. OVX) x 3 (no GTP, 0.1% GTP, and 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using 14-month-old female rats (n = 10/group) was performed. An additional 10 rats in baseline group were euthanized at the beginning of study to provide baseline parameters.
There was no difference in femur bone mineral density between baseline and the SH+0.5% GTP group. Ovariectomy resulted in lower values for liver glutathione peroxidase activity, serum estradiol, and bone mineral density. GTP supplementation resulted in increased urinary epigallocatechin and epicatechin concentrations, liver glutathione peroxidase activity and femur bone mineral density, decreased urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and urinary calcium levels, but no effect on serum estradiol and blood chemistry levels.
We conclude that a bone-protective role of GTP may contribute to an increase of antioxidant capacity and/or a decrease of oxidative stress damage.

Shen CL, Wang P, Guerrieri J, Yeh JK…
Osteoporos Int Jul 2008
PMID: 18084689

EGCG Suppresses Osteoclasts and Arthritis in Mice


(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses osteoclast differentiation and ameliorates experimental arthritis in mice.

To verify the effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on osteoclast differentiation and on experimental arthritis in mice.
Human osteoclasts were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes. The effects of EGCG were examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, bone resorption assay, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Arthritis was induced in mice by injecting a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies against collagen. EGCG (20 microg/gm body weight) was administered intraperitoneally every day from day 0 through the end of the experiments (day 15). The effects of EGCG were determined by assessments of joint swelling, histologic changes, and TRAP staining on day 15.
EGCG reduced the generation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells, bone resorption activity, and osteoclast-specific gene expression without affecting cell viability. EGCG down-regulated expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NF-ATc1), but not of NF-kappaB, c-Fos, and c-Jun, suggesting that down-regulation of NF-ATc1 is one of the molecular bases of EGCG action. Additionally, EGCG treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms and reduced histologic scores in arthritic mice (P < 0.05). The in vivo effect of EGCG on osteoclast differentiation was not clear in this model, probably because EGCG suppressed the inflammation itself.
EGCG suppressed osteoclast differentiation and ameliorated experimental arthritis in mice over the short term. It remains to be established whether EGCG is useful for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Morinobu A, Biao W, Tanaka S, Horiuchi M…
Arthritis Rheum. Jul 2008
PMID: 18576345 | Free Full Text

EGCG Inhibits Osteoclasts in Mice


Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits osteoclastogenesis by down-regulating c-Fos expression and suppressing the nuclear factor-kappaB signal.

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major anti-inflammatory compound in green tea, has been shown to suppress osteoclast differentiation. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory action of EGCG in osteoclastogenesis and the effect of EGCG on inflammation-mediated bone destruction remain unclear. In this study, we found that EGCG inhibited osteoclast formation induced by osteoclastogenic factors in bone marrow cell-osteoblast cocultures but did not affect the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin induced by osteoclastogenic factors in osteoblasts. We also found that EGCG inhibited osteoclast formation from bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus RANKL in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Pretreatment with EGCG significantly inhibited RANKL-induced the gene expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1), essential transcription factors for osteoclast development. EGCG suppressed RANKL-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway, among the three well known mitogen-activated protein kinases and also inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of the NF-kappaB p65 subunit at Ser276 and NF-kappaB transcriptional activity without affecting the degradation of IkappaBalpha and NF-kappaB DNA-binding in BMMs. The inhibitory effect of EGCG on osteoclast formation was somewhat reversed by retroviral c-Fos overexpression, suggesting that c-Fos is a downstream target for antiosteoclastogenic action of EGCG. In addition, EGCG treatment reduced interleukin-1-induced osteoclast formation and bone destruction in mouse calvarial bone in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that EGCG has an antiosteoclastogenic effect by inhibiting RANKL-induced the activation of JNK/c-Jun and NF-kappaB pathways, thereby suppressing the gene expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors.

Lee JH, Jin H, Shim HE, Kim HN…
Mol. Pharmacol. Jan 2010
PMID: 19828731 | Free Full Text

EGCG Improves Bone in Ovariectomized Rats


(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats.

Previously, we reported that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, increased the osteogenic differentiation of murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing the messenger RNA expression of osteogenesis-related genes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and, eventually, mineralization. The present study further investigated the effects of EGCG on bone microstructure change and possible mechanisms in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteopenic rats.
Rats subjected to OVX were administered EGCG systemically for 12 weeks. Proximal tibial bone mineral densities before and after treatment were compared between groups. Changes in the microarchitecture of both the proximal tibia and the third lumbar spine were compared between EGCG-treated and nontreated groups using micro-CT (μCT). Bone histology and immunohistochemistry in the proximal tibia were evaluated.
Results showed that EGCG 3.4 mg/kg/day (estimated peak serum concentration, 10 μmol/L) hampered the decrease in bone mineral density (from 7.97% to 3.96%) and improved the parameters of μCT measurements, including bone volume (from 18% to 27%), trabecular thickness (from 0.17 to 0.22 mm), trabecular number (from 1.13 to 1.37 mm(-1)), and trabecular separation (from 0.91 to 0.69 mm), compared with nontreated ovariectomized rats. Similar improvements in bone volume (from 30% to 49%) and trabecular thickness (from 0.14 to 0.26 mm) were also found in the third lumbar spine. Bone volume in the tibial cortex also increased after EGCG treatment (from 9% to 28%). A higher trabecular number and greater trabecular volume were also seen in histology, further confirming the results of μCT. The immunolocalized bone morphogenetic protein 2 brown-stained area increased from 31% in the OVX group to 53% in the OVX + 10 EGCG group (P < 0.01). Serial biochemistry data revealed no significant systemic toxic effect of EGCG.
Intraperitoneal treatment with EGCG 3.4 mg/kg/day for 3 months can mitigate bone loss and improve bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats, and increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 may contribute to this effect.

Chen CH, Kang L, Lin RW, Fu YC…
Menopause Jun 2013
PMID: 23511703

AMPK Activators: Lipoic Acid, Metformin, EGCG, Berberine, Resveratrol Can Inhibit Bone Resorption in Mice


AMP kinase acts as a negative regulator of RANKL in the differentiation of osteoclasts.

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported to stimulate differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts, but the role of AMPK in the physiology of osteoclasts has not been investigated.
Osteoclasts were differentiated from mouse BMMϕs. TRAP-positive multinucleated cells were considered to be osteoclasts using TRAP staining, and resorption area was determined by incubation of cells on dentine discs. Signaling pathways were investigated using Western blotting and RT-PCR.
RANKL induced phosphorylation/activation of AMPK-α in BMMϕs and stimulated formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK with compound C and siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPK-α1, the predominant α-subunit isoform in BMMϕs, increased RANKL-induced formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and bone resorption via activation of the downstream signaling elements p38, JNK, NF-κB, Akt, CREB, c-Fos, and NFATc1. STO-609, an inhibitor of CaMKK, completely blocked the RANKL-induced activation of AMPK-α, but KN-93, an inhibitor of CaMK, did not. siRNA-mediated TAK1 knockdown also blocked RANKL-induced activation of AMPK-α. The AMPK activators metformin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, berberine, resveratrol, and α-lipoic acid dose-dependently suppressed formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and bone resorption.
AMPK negatively regulates RANKL, possibly by acting through CaMKK and TAK1. Thus, the development of AMPK activators may be a useful strategy for inhibiting the resorption of bone that is stimulated under RANKL-activated conditions.

Lee YS, Kim YS, Lee SY, Kim GH…
Bone Nov 2010
PMID: 20696287