Category Archives: Fish

Fish or Fish Oil No Association With Fracture – 2010


Fish consumption, bone mineral density, and risk of hip fracture among older adults: the cardiovascular health study.

Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be beneficial for bone health, but few studies have investigated the association with fish consumption. Our aim was to study associations of fish and EPA + DHA consumption with bone mineral density (BMD) and hip fracture risk and determine whether high linoleic acid (LA) intake, the major dietary n-6 PUFA, modifies the associations. The study population consisted of 5045 participants aged 65 years and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Data on BMD were available for 1305 participants. Food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake, and hip fracture incidence was assessed prospectively by review of hospitalization records. After multivariable adjustment, femoral neck BMD was 0.01 g/cm(2) lower in the highest versus lowest tuna/other-fish intake category (p = .05 for trend). EPA + DHA intake (higher versus lower median of 0.32 g/day) was associated with lower femoral neck BMD (0.66 versus 0.71 g/cm(2), p < .001) among those with LA intake greater than the median 12.1 g/day (p = .03 for interaction). No significant associations were found with total-hip BMD. During mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 505 hip fractures occurred. Fish or EPA + DHA consumption was not significantly associated with fracture incidence [hazard ratio (HR) for extreme categories: HR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-1.84 for tuna/other fish; HR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.91-1.49 for fried fish; and HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.71-1.36 for EPA + DHA]. High LA intake did not modify these associations. In this large prospective cohort of older adults, fish consumption was associated with very small differences in BMD and had no association with hip fracture risk.

Virtanen JK, Mozaffarian D, Cauley JA, Mukamal KJ…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Sep 2010
PMID: 20572022 | Free Full Text

Fish May Protect Bone in Older Adults – 2011


Protective effects of fish intake and interactive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes on hip bone mineral density in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish may influence bone health.
We aimed to examine associations between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid and fish intakes and hip bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline (1988-1989; n = 854) and changes 4 y later in adults (n = 623) with a mean age of 75 y in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.

BMD measures were regressed on energy-adjusted quartiles of fatty acid intakes [n-3 (omega-3): α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+ DHA; n-6 (omega-6): linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA); and n-6:n-3 ratio] and on categorized fish intakes, with adjustment for covariates. Effect modification by EPA+DHA intake was tested for n-6 exposures.
High intakes (≥3 servings/wk) of fish relative to lower intakes were associated with maintenance of femoral neck BMD (FN-BMD) in men (dark fish + tuna, dark fish, and tuna) and in women (dark fish) (P < 0.05). Significant interactions between AA and EPA+DHA intakes were observed cross-sectionally in women and longitudinally in men. In women with EPA+DHA intakes at or above the median, those with the highest AA intakes had a higher mean baseline FN-BMD than did those with the lowest intakes (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: P = 0.03, P for trend = 0.02). In men with the lowest EPA+DHA intakes (quartile 1), those with the highest intakes of AA (quartile 4) lost more FN-BMD than did men with the lowest intakes of AA (quartile 1; P = 0.04). LA intake tended to be associated with FN-BMD loss in women (P for trend < 0.06).
Fish consumption may protect against bone loss. The protective effects of a high AA intake may be dependent on the amount of EPA+DHA intake.

Farina EK, Kiel DP, Roubenoff R, Schaefer EJ…
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. May 2011
PMID: 21367955 | Free Full Text

Fish Consumption Helps Maintain Bone in Spanish Women – 2013


Dietary habits, nutrients and bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women: the contribution of fish to better bone health.

The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05) bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05) was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5-7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.

Calderon-Garcia JF, Moran JM, Roncero-Martin R, Rey-Sanchez P…
Nutrients Jan 2013
PMID: 23271510 | Free Full Text

Fish, Olive Oil, and Low Red Meat Preserve Bone in Greek Women


Association between dietary patterns and indices of bone mass in a sample of Mediterranean women.

A holistic dietary approach, examining the effect of dietary patterns in terms of chronic disease prevention and treatment, continuously gains more attention and may elucidate the association between diet and bone health. In the present study we examined whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet or other dietary patterns has any significant impact on indices of bone mass.
Two hundred twenty adult Greek women were recruited. Lumbar spine bone mineral density and total body bone mineral content were determined by using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Food intake was assessed using 3-d food records and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated through a Mediterranean diet score. Principal components analysis was used for the identification of participants’ dietary patterns.
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet was not found to have any significant effect on indices of bone mass. Principal components analysis identified 10 dietary patterns explaining 80% of the variance in food intake. A pattern characterized by high consumption of fish and olive oil and low intake of red meat was positively associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (P = 0.017) and total body bone mineral content (P = 0.048), after controlling for several confounders.
Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not associated with indices of bone mass in a sample of adult women, whereas adherence to a dietary pattern close to the Mediterranean diet, i.e., high consumption of fish and olive oil and low red meat intake, was positively related to bone mass, suggesting potential bone-preserving properties of this pattern throughout adult life.

Kontogianni MD, Melistas L, Yannakoulia M, Malagaris I…
Nutrition Feb 2009
PMID: 18849146