Tag Archives: population

High Salt Diet May be a Risk Factor for Osteoporosis in Korean Women


Association between Urinary Sodium Excretion and Bone Health in Male and Female Adults.

High salt intake is a well-known risk factor for osteoporosis, but the association between bone mass and urinary sodium excretion has not been studied as yet. This study investigates the hypothesis that urinary sodium excretion is negatively associated with bone mass and the risk of osteoporosis.
This cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. Participants (n = 16,279) were divided into age groups; men were categorized as younger than 50 years of age or 50 years or greater, women were categorized as pre- or post-menopausal. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that urinary sodium excretion was negatively associated with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Sodium excretion was negatively associated with BMC and BMD of the lumbar spine in women with normal bone health, osteopenia and osteoporosis, but there was no association in men. Increased sodium excretion was significantly associated with risk for osteoporosis/osteopenia in premenopausal women. This study demonstrates that urinary sodium excretion is negatively associated with bone health, suggesting that high salt intake could be a possible risk factor for osteoporosis in Korean women, but not in men.

Park Y, Kwon SJ, Ha YC
Ann. Nutr. Metab. 2016
PMID: 26967579

Silicon Associated with Bone Density in Men and Women


Dietary silicon intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in men and premenopausal women of the Framingham Offspring cohort.

The role of dietary silicon in bone health in humans is not known. In a cross-sectional, population-based study (2847 participants), associations between dietary silicon intake and BMD were investigated. Dietary silicon correlated positively and significantly with BMD at all hip sites in men and premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women, suggesting that increased silicon intake is associated with increased cortical BMD in these populations.
Osteoporosis is a burgeoning health and economic issue. Agents that promote bone formation are widely sought. Animal and cellular data suggest that the orthosilicate anion (i.e., dietary silicon) is involved in bone formation. The intake of silicon (Si, approximately 30 mg/day) is among the highest for trace elements in humans, but its contribution to bone health is not known.
In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we examined the association between silicon intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in 1251 men and 1596 pre- and postmenopausal women in the Framingham Offspring cohort (age, 30-87 years) at four hip sites and lumbar spine, adjusting for all potential confounding factors known to influence BMD and nutrient intake.
Silicon intake correlated positively with adjusted BMD at four hip sites in men and premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women. No significant association was observed at the lumbar spine in any group. Categorical analysis by Si intake, or energy-adjusted Si intake, supported these findings, and showed large differences in BMD (up to 10%) between the highest (> 40 mg Si/day) and lowest (< 14 mg Si/day) quintiles of silicon intake. A significant association at the lumbar spine in men was also observed. Further analyses indicated that some of the effects seen for moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages on BMD might be attributed to Si intake.
These findings suggest that higher dietary silicon intake in men and younger women may have salutary effects on skeletal health, especially cortical bone health, that has not been previously recognized. Confirmation of these results is being sought in a longitudinal study and by assessment of the influence of silicon intake on bone markers in this cohort.

Jugdaohsingh R, Tucker KL, Qiao N, Cupples LA…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Feb 2004
PMID: 14969400

Vitamin C Supplements Associated With Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women


Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

Vitamin C is known to stimulate procollagen, enhance collagen synthesis, and stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for osteoblast formation. Studies of dietary vitamin C intake and the relation with bone mineral density (BMD) have been conflicting, probably because of the well-known limitations of dietary nutrient assessment questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent relation of daily vitamin C supplement use with BMD in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women. Subjects were 994 women from a community-based cohort of whom 277 women were regular vitamin C supplement users. Vitamin C supplement use was validated. Daily vitamin C supplement intake ranged from 100 to 5,000 mg; the mean daily dose was 745 mg. Average duration of use was 12.4 years; 85% had taken vitamin C supplements for more than 3 years. BMD levels were measured at the ultradistal and midshaft radii, hip, and lumbar spine. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and total calcium intake, vitamin C users had BMD levels approximately 3% higher at the midshaft radius, femoral neck, and total hip (p < 0.05). In a fully adjusted model, significant differences remained at the femoral neck (p < 0.02) and marginal significance was observed at the total hip (p < 0.06). Women taking both estrogen and vitamin C had significantly higher BMD levels at all sites. Among current estrogen users, those also taking vitamin C had higher BMD levels at all sites, with marginal significance achieved at the ultradistal radius (p < 0.07), femoral neck (p < 0.07), and total hip (p < 0.09). Women who took vitamin C plus calcium and estrogen had the highest BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.001), total hip (p = 0.05), ultradistal radius (p = 0.02), and lumbar spine. Vitamin C supplement use appears to have a beneficial effect on levels of BMD, especially among postmenopausal women using concurrent estrogen therapy and calcium supplements.

Morton DJ, Barrett-Connor EL, Schneider DL
J. Bone Miner. Res. Jan 2001
PMID: 11149477

Vitamin C Effects Not Clear in Population Study


Relation of ascorbic acid to bone mineral density and self-reported fractures among US adults.

Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient involved in collagen formation, and its deficiency is associated with abnormal bone development. To examine the relation of ascorbic acid to bone mineral density and the prevalence of self-reported fractures, the authors analyzed data collected from 13,080 adults enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) during 1988-1994. Because they identified three-way interactions among smoking, history of estrogen use, and dietary and serum ascorbic acid in postmenopausal women, they analyzed these relations stratified by smoking and estrogen use. Dietary ascorbic acid intake was independently associated with bone mineral density among premenopausal women (p = 0.002). Among men, serum ascorbic acid was associated in a nonlinear fashion with bone mineral density (p < 0.05), and dietary ascorbic acid intake was associated in a nonlinear fashion with self-reported fracture (p = 0.05). Among postmenopausal women without a history of smoking or estrogen use, serum ascorbic acid was unexpectedly associated with lower bone mineral density (p = 0.01). However, among postmenopausal women with a history of smoking and estrogen use, a standard deviation increase in serum ascorbic acid was associated with a 49% decrease in fracture prevalence (p = 0.001). Dietary and serum ascorbic acid measures were associated inconsistently with bone mineral density and self-reported fracture among adult participants in NHANES III.

Simon JA, Hudes ES
Am. J. Epidemiol. Sep 2001
PMID: 11532784 | Free Full Text

Saturated Fat Associated with Lower Bone Density; Protein or Vitamin C No Help


Dietary saturated fat intake is inversely associated with bone density in humans: analysis of NHANES III.

Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health. Most of this evidence is derived from animal studies. Of the few human studies that have been conducted, relatively small numbers of subjects and/or primarily female subjects were included. The present study assessed the relation of dietary fat to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women using NHANES III data (n = 14,850). Multivariate models using SAS-callable SUDAAN were used to adjust for the sampling scheme. Models were adjusted for age, sex, weight, height, race, total energy and calcium intakes, smoking, and weight-bearing exercise. Data from women were further adjusted for use of hormone replacement therapy. Including dietary protein, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the model did not influence the outcome. Analysis of covariance was used to generate mean BMD by quintile of total and saturated fat intake for 4 sex/age groups. Saturated fat intake was negatively associated with BMD at several hip sites. The greatest effects were seen among men < 50 y old (linear trend P = 0.004 for the femoral neck). For the femoral neck, adjusted mean BMD was 4.3% less among men with the highest compared with the lowest quintile of saturated fat intake (BMD, 95% CI: highest quintile: 0.922 g/cm2, 0.909-0.935; lowest quintile: 0.963 g/cm2, 95% CI: 0.950-0.976). These data indicate that BMD is negatively associated with saturated fat intake, and that men may be particularly vulnerable to these effects.

Corwin RL, Hartman TJ, Maczuga SA, Graubard BI
J. Nutr. Jan 2006
PMID: 16365076 | Free Full Text

Vitamin C + β-Cryptoxanthin May Increase Bone Density in Post-Menopausal Women


Dietary patterns of antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid intake associated with bone mineral density: findings from post-menopausal Japanese female subjects.

Recent studies show that antioxidants may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. This study showed the associations of bone mineral density with dietary patterns of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids. The findings suggest the combination of vitamin C and β-cryptoxanthin intakes might provide benefit to bone health in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects.
Recent epidemiological studies show antioxidants may reduce the risk of osteoporosis, but little is known about the dietary patterns of antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid intakes and their relation with bone mineral density (BMD).
A total of 293 post-menopausal female subjects who had received health examinations in the town of Mikkabi, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, participated in the study. Radial BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids were assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified on a selected set of antioxidants through principal component factor analysis.
Three dietary patterns were identified. The “retinol” pattern, characterized by notably high intakes of preformed retinol, zeaxanthin, and vitamin E, was positively associated with the risk for low BMD. In contrast, the “β-cryptoxanthin” pattern, characterized by notably high intakes of β-cryptoxanthin and vitamin C, was negatively associated with low BMD. The odds ratios for low BMD in the highest tertiles of dietary intakes of preformed retinol, vitamin C, and β-cryptoxanthin against the lowest tertiles were 3.22 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.38-7.51], 0.25 (CI, 0.10-0.66), and 0.40 (CI, 0.17-0.92), respectively, after adjustments for confounders. However, negative associations of vitamin C and β-cryptoxanthin with low BMD were not significant after further adjustment for intake of β-cryptoxanthin or vitamin C, respectively. Higher intakes of both vitamin C and β-cryptoxanthin were significantly associated with low BMD (P < 0.05).
The combination of vitamin C and β-cryptoxanthin may be associated with radial BMD in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects.

Sugiura M, Nakamura M, Ogawa K, Ikoma Y…
Osteoporos Int Jan 2011
PMID: 20480147

Depression Associated with Bone Loss in Older Men


Depressive symptoms and rates of bone loss at the hip in older men.

In this prospective cohort study, depressive symptoms were associated with higher rates of bone loss in older men. Poorer performance on physical function tests partly explained the association between depressive symptoms and bone loss, suggesting that efforts to increase exercise and improve physical performance in depressed men may be beneficial.
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether depressive symptoms are associated with increased rates of bone loss at the hip in older men.
A population-based prospective cohort study of 2,464 community-dwelling men, aged 68 and older, enrolled in the Osteoporosis in Men Sleep Ancillary Study had depressive symptoms assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Subjects were categorized as depressed if GDS ≥6 at the initial examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the initial and follow-up examination (average 3.4 years between exams). Use of antidepressant medications was assessed by interview and verified from medication containers at the two examinations. A computerized dictionary was used to categorize type of medication.
In a base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and clinic site, the mean total hip BMD decreased 0.70 %/year in 136 men with a GDS score of ≥6 compared to 0.39 %/year in 2,328 men with a GDS score of <6 (p = 0.001). Walking speed and timed chair stand partly explained the association between depressive symptoms and rates of bone loss.
Depression, as defined by a score of 6 or greater on the Geriatric Depression Scale, is associated with an increased rate of bone loss at the hip in this cohort of older men. Adjustment for walking speed and timed chair stand attenuated the strength of the association, suggesting that differences in physical functioning do partially explain the observed association.

Diem SJ, Harrison SL, Haney E, Cauley JA…
Osteoporos Int Jan 2013
PMID: 22461074

Fish, Olive Oil, and Low Red Meat Preserve Bone in Greek Women


Association between dietary patterns and indices of bone mass in a sample of Mediterranean women.

A holistic dietary approach, examining the effect of dietary patterns in terms of chronic disease prevention and treatment, continuously gains more attention and may elucidate the association between diet and bone health. In the present study we examined whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet or other dietary patterns has any significant impact on indices of bone mass.
Two hundred twenty adult Greek women were recruited. Lumbar spine bone mineral density and total body bone mineral content were determined by using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Food intake was assessed using 3-d food records and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated through a Mediterranean diet score. Principal components analysis was used for the identification of participants’ dietary patterns.
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet was not found to have any significant effect on indices of bone mass. Principal components analysis identified 10 dietary patterns explaining 80% of the variance in food intake. A pattern characterized by high consumption of fish and olive oil and low intake of red meat was positively associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (P = 0.017) and total body bone mineral content (P = 0.048), after controlling for several confounders.
Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not associated with indices of bone mass in a sample of adult women, whereas adherence to a dietary pattern close to the Mediterranean diet, i.e., high consumption of fish and olive oil and low red meat intake, was positively related to bone mass, suggesting potential bone-preserving properties of this pattern throughout adult life.

Kontogianni MD, Melistas L, Yannakoulia M, Malagaris I…
Nutrition Feb 2009
PMID: 18849146

Olive Oil and Lower Carbs In Greece


Energy intake and monounsaturated fat in relation to bone mineral density among women and men in Greece.

Several variables have been established as risk factors for osteoporosis: it is more common among women and the gender difference increases with age and with years since menopause. Estrogens, androgens, physical activity, and body mass index have been previously shown to be positively associated with bone mineral density and inversely with risk for fractures.
To assess the effect on bone mineral content of energy-generating nutrients, healthy men (n = 36) and women (n = 118) ages 25-69 years were interviewed among visitors and staff of the University of Athens Department of Medical Physics. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by single photon absorptiometry.
Demographic and lifestyle variables were not significantly related to BMD in this study, although the patterns were consistent with those previously reported by other investigators. Total energy intake, which also reflects energy expenditure through physical activity, was positively associated with BMD among both men (P = 0.003) and women (P = 0.04). After adjustment for nonnutritional variables and energy intake, monounsaturated fat, which in the Greek population is mostly derived from olive oil, was associated with BMD. The association was positive among both men (P = 0.01) and women (P = 0.03). There was evidence for an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and BMD, but the association was significant only with respect to mono- and disaccharides.
In this population, consumption of monounsaturated fat and physical activity were predictive of bone mineral density, but larger studies are needed.

Trichopoulou A, Georgiou E, Bassiakos Y, Lipworth L…
Prev Med
PMID: 9144765