Category Archives: Fruit

Fruit Associated With Bone Density and Content in Chinese Women


Fruit and vegetable intake and bone mass in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.

Previous studies showed an inconsistent association of fruit and vegetable consumption with bone health. We assessed the associations in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study conducted in China during July 2009 to May 2010.
Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the whole body, lumbar spine and left hip were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using an FFQ. All these values were separately standardized into Z-scores in each population subgroup.
One hundred and ten boys and 112 girls (11-14 years), 371 young women (20-34 years, postpartum within 2 weeks) and 333 postmenopausal women (50-70 years).
After adjustment for potential covariates, analysis of covariance showed a significantly positive association between fruit intake and BMD and BMC in all participants combined (P-trend: < 0.001 to 0.002). BMD Z-score increased by 0.25 (or 2.1 % of the mean), 0.22 (3.5 %), 0.23 (3.0 %) and 0.25 (3.5 %), and BMC Z-score increased by 0.33 (5.7 %), 0.25 (5.8 %), 0.34 (5.9 %) and 0.29 (4.7 %), at the total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck in participants belonging to the top tertile compared with the bottom tertile of fruit intake (all P < 0.05), respectively. There was no significant association between vegetable intake and bone mass at all bone sites studied except for total body BMD (P = 0.030). Relatively more pronounced effects were observed in boys and postmenopausal women.
Our findings add to the existing evidence that fruits and vegetables may have a bone sparing effect.

Li JJ, Huang ZW, Wang RQ, Ma XM…
Public Health Nutr Jan 2013
PMID: 22717072

Blueberry May Prevent Collagen and Bone Loss in Rat Cells


Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells.

Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation.

Zhang J, Lazarenko OP, Blackburn ML, Badger TM…
Age (Dordr) Jun 2013
PMID: 22555620

Review: Nutrition for Osteoporosis


Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition.

Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, recent research has clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Further, results of calcium and vitamin D supplementation trials have been inconsistent, suggesting that reliance on this intervention may be inadequate. In addition to dairy, fruit and vegetable intake has emerged as an important modifiable protective factor for bone health. Several nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin K, several B vitamins, and carotenoids, have been shown to be more important than previously realized. Rather than having a negative effect on bone, protein intake appears to benefit bone status, particularly in older adults. Regular intake of cola beverages shows negative effects and moderate alcohol intake shows positive effects on bone, particularly in older women. Current research on diet and bone status supports encouragement of balanced diets with plenty of fruit and vegetables, adequate dairy and other protein foods, and limitation of foods with low nutrient density.

Tucker KL
Curr Osteoporos Rep Dec 2009
PMID: 19968914

Potassium Citrate or Fruits + Veggies, No Benefit Over 2 Years


Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

Alkali provision may explain why fruit and vegetables benefit bone health.
We aimed to determine the effects of alkali-providing potassium citrate (double-blind) and fruit and vegetable intake (single-blind) on bone turnover over 2 y.
We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 276 postmenopausal women (aged 55-65 y). Women were randomly assigned to 4 groups: high-dose potassium citrate (55.5 mEq/d), low-dose potassium citrate (18.5 mEq/d), placebo, and 300 g additional fruit and vegetables/d (equivalent of 18.5 mEq alkali). Serum and fasted urine for bone markers were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. An additional urine sample was collected at 4-6 wk. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and 2 y.
Repeated-measures ANOVA showed no difference between groups for urinary free deoxypyridinoline cross-links relative to creatinine (fDPD/Cr), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen, or beta C-terminal telopeptide, although, at 4-6 wk, fDPD/Cr was lower in the high-dose potassium citrate group (P = 0.04). Mean +/- SD spine BMD loss in the placebo group (1.8 +/- 3.9%) did not differ significantly from that in the treatment groups (2.1 +/- 3.2%; P = 0.88). Hip BMD loss in the placebo and low-dose potassium citrate groups was 1.3 +/- 2.3% and 2.2 +/- 2.3%, respectively (P = 0.14).
Two-year potassium citrate supplementation does not reduce bone turnover or increase BMD in healthy postmenopausal women, which suggests that alkali provision does not explain any long-term benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on bone.

Macdonald HM, Black AJ, Aucott L, Duthie G…
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Aug 2008
PMID: 18689384 | Free Full Text

In summary, neither potassium citrate at 18.5 or 55.6 mEq/d nor 300 g self-selected fruit and vegetables/d influenced bone turnover or prevented BMD loss over 2 y in healthy postmenopausal women. Further work is required to investigate whether particular fruit and vegetables are important and how much of each is optimal for bone health.

Orange Improves Bone in Orchidectomized Rats


Feeding orange pulp improved bone quality in a rat model of male osteoporosis.

Oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to bone loss. We evaluated the effects of feeding orange pulp (OP), a source of vitamin C and flavonoids, on bone quality in a rat model of male osteoporosis. One-year-old retired breeder rats (n = 43) were orchidectomized (ORX) or sham-operated (SHAM). Three days postsurgery, ORX rats were randomly assigned to treatments: ORX or ORX with 2.5% OP, 5% OP, or 10% OP. Diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric, modified AIN-93M diets with equal fiber content. All ORX rats were fed for 4 months to the mean food intake of the SHAM group. At the end of the study blood, urine and bone samples were collected. Plasma antioxidant capacity and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were determined. Bone density, structure, and strength were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, microcomputed tomography, and finite element analyses. ORX decreased (P < .05) antioxidant status, while OP as low as 2.5% maintained the antioxidant capacity of ORX rats comparable to that of the SHAM group. Cortical thickness at the tibial midshaft was significantly decreased by ORX and increased by OP, and urinary DPD was significantly increased by ORX and decreased by OP. In fourth lumbar trabecular cores, ORX rats had significantly reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, and trabecular number and increased trabecular separation. OP significantly increased bone volume fraction and trabecular number and decreased trabecular separation in ORX rats. Improvements due to OP in microarchitectural properties of vertebral bones and in cortical thickness of long bones were subtle but significant. The consistently negative impacts of ORX on bone density, structure, and strength parameters confirm the previously reported importance of testosterone for bone.

Morrow R, Deyhim F, Patil BS, Stoecker BJ
J Med Food Apr 2009
PMID: 19459729

Fruit + Vegetables Fails to Improve Bone Over 16 Weeks


Effect of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on bone turnover in older adults: a randomised controlled trial.

Evidence suggests that increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake may be associated with improved bone health, but there is limited evidence from intervention trials to support this. This 16-week study showed that increased FV consumption (five or more portions per day) does not have any effect on the markers of bone health in older adults.
Observational evidence suggests that increased FV consumption may be associated with improved bone health. However, there is lack of evidence from intervention trials to support this. This study examined the effect of increased FV consumption on bone markers among healthy, free-living older adults.
A randomised controlled trial was undertaken. Eighty-three participants aged 65-85 years, habitually consuming less than or equal to two portions of FV per day, were randomised to continue their normal diet or to consume five or more portions of FV per day for 16 weeks. FV were delivered to all participants each week, free of charge. Compliance was assessed at baseline and at 6, 12 and 16 weeks by diet histories and biomarkers of micronutrient status. Fasting serum bone markers (osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX)) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Eighty-two participants completed the intervention. The five portions per day group showed a significantly greater change in daily FV consumption compared to the two portions per day group (p < 0.001), and this was reflected in significant increases in micronutrient status. No significant differences were evident in change in bone markers between the two portions per day group and the five portions per day group over the 16 weeks (geometric mean of week 16 to baseline ratio (95% confidence interval): OC-0.95 (0.89-1.02) and 1.04 (0.91-1.18), respectively, p = 0.25; CTX-1.06 (0.95-1.19) and 0.98 (0.90-1.06) respectively, p = 0.20).
Increased FV consumption had no effect on bone markers in older adults. Larger intervention studies of longer duration are warranted to establish whether long-term FV consumption can benefit bone health.

Neville CE, Young IS, Gilchrist SE, McKinley MC…
Osteoporos Int Jan 2014
PMID: 23716039

Grapefruit Improves Bone Quality in Orchidectomized Rats Again


Grapefruit juice modulates bone quality in rats.

Hypogonadism and oxidative stress increase the risk for developing osteoporosis. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of drinking grapefruit juice on bone quality in orchidectomized (ORX) and non-ORX rats. Fifty-six 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups–non-ORX rats (sham), sham + grapefruit juice, ORX, and ORX + grapefruit juice–and treated for 60 days. Thereafter, all rats were sacrificed to determine the plasma antioxidant status, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and indices of bone turnover, bone quality, and calcium and magnesium concentrations in the bone, urine, and feces. Orchidectomy decreased (P < .05) antioxidant status, bone quality, and bone mineral contents and increased (P < .05) indices of bone turnover, urinary deoxypridinoline, calcium, and magnesium, and fecal calcium excretions. In contrast to the ORX group, ORX rats that drank grapefruit juice had an increase (P < .05) in antioxidant status, bone density, and bone mineral contents, delayed femoral fracture, and slowed down (P < .05) bone turnover rate and tended to have a decrease (P = .08) in urinary deoxypridinoline. In sham-treated animals, drinking grapefruit juice increased (P < .05) bone density and tended to increase the femoral strength. The concentration of IGF-I in the plasma was not affected across treatments. In conclusion, drinking grapefruit juice positively affected bone quality by enhancing bone mineral deposition in ORX rats and by improving bone density in non-ORX rats via an undefined mechanism.

Deyhim F, Mandadi K, Faraji B, Patil BS
J Med Food Mar 2008
PMID: 18361744

Grapefruit Improves Bone Quality in Orchidectomized Rats


Grapefruit pulp increases antioxidant status and improves bone quality in orchidectomized rats.

Orchidectomy causes oxidative stress and increases the incidence of osteoporosis. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether eating grapefruit pulp (GP) modifies antioxidant status and reduces osteoporosis in orchidectomized rats.
Fifty-six 90-d-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: sham-control group (n = 14) and orchidectomized (ORX) group (n = 42). The orchidectomized group was equally divided among the following three treatments: orchidectomy, orchidectomy + 5.0% GP, and orchidectomy + 10% GP. At the termination of the study (day 60), all rats were euthanized and the plasma was collected for antioxidant status and indices of bone turnover. Bone quality and mineral contents in the bone, urine, and feces were evaluated.
Orchidectomy lowered (P < 0.05) antioxidant status, bone quality, bone mineral contents and elevated (P < 0.05) indices of bone turnover, urinary deoxypyridinoline, and fecal calcium excretion. In contrast to the ORX group, independent of dosage, antioxidant status, bone density, and delayed time-induced femoral fracture were higher (P < 0.05) in the GP groups, whereas fecal calcium excretion and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion were lowered (P < 0.05). GP dose-dependently slowed down bone turnover (P < 0.05), elevated bone calcium and magnesium contents (P < 0.05), tended to lower urinary excretion of magnesium, and numerically improved bone strength.
The beneficial effects of eating red grapefruit on bone quality of ORX rats is due to bone mineral deposition and slowed-down bone turnover.

Deyhim F, Mandadi K, Patil BS, Faraji B
Nutrition Oct 2008
PMID: 18595661

Citrus Positively Affects Bone Strength in Rats


Citrus juice modulates bone strength in male senescent rat model of osteoporosis.

An experiment evaluated the effect of citrus juice on enhancing serum antioxidant status and on osteoporosis prevention in orchidectomized rats.
Thirty-six 1-y-old male rats were randomized to two groups: a sham-control group (n = 9) and an orchidectomized group (n = 27). The orchidectomized group was divided into three groups of nine and assigned to one of the following treatments: orchidectomy, orchidectomy plus orange juice, and orchidectomy plus grapefruit juice. Sixty days after initiation of the study, all rats were killed, blood was collected, and serum was harvested for total antioxidant status and indices of bone formation and resorption. Femoral density and biomechanical properties were monitored.
Orchidectomy decreased (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity, femoral density, and biomechanical properties and increased (P < 0.05) alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline compared with the sham-control group. In contrast to orchidectomy, orchidectomy plus orange juice and orchidectomy plus grapefruit juice reversed (P < 0.05) orchidectomy-induced antioxidant suppression, decreased (P < 0.05) alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities, moderately restored (P = 0.07) femoral density, increased (P < 0.05) femoral strength, significantly delayed time-induced femoral fracture, and decreased (P < 0.05) urinary excretion of hydroxyproline.
The present study supports the supposition in that drinking citrus juice positively affects serum antioxidant status and bone strength.

Deyhim F, Garica K, Lopez E, Gonzalez J…
Nutrition May 2006
PMID: 16472977

Cranberry Inhibits Osteoclasts In Vitro


A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the RANKL-dependent differentiation and function of human osteoclasts.

This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold) and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

Tanabe S, Santos J, La VD, Howell AB…
Molecules 2011
PMID: 21399573 | Free Full Text