Monthly Archives: March 2014

Grapefruit Improves Bone Quality in Orchidectomized Rats Again


Grapefruit juice modulates bone quality in rats.

Hypogonadism and oxidative stress increase the risk for developing osteoporosis. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of drinking grapefruit juice on bone quality in orchidectomized (ORX) and non-ORX rats. Fifty-six 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups–non-ORX rats (sham), sham + grapefruit juice, ORX, and ORX + grapefruit juice–and treated for 60 days. Thereafter, all rats were sacrificed to determine the plasma antioxidant status, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and indices of bone turnover, bone quality, and calcium and magnesium concentrations in the bone, urine, and feces. Orchidectomy decreased (P < .05) antioxidant status, bone quality, and bone mineral contents and increased (P < .05) indices of bone turnover, urinary deoxypridinoline, calcium, and magnesium, and fecal calcium excretions. In contrast to the ORX group, ORX rats that drank grapefruit juice had an increase (P < .05) in antioxidant status, bone density, and bone mineral contents, delayed femoral fracture, and slowed down (P < .05) bone turnover rate and tended to have a decrease (P = .08) in urinary deoxypridinoline. In sham-treated animals, drinking grapefruit juice increased (P < .05) bone density and tended to increase the femoral strength. The concentration of IGF-I in the plasma was not affected across treatments. In conclusion, drinking grapefruit juice positively affected bone quality by enhancing bone mineral deposition in ORX rats and by improving bone density in non-ORX rats via an undefined mechanism.

Deyhim F, Mandadi K, Faraji B, Patil BS
J Med Food Mar 2008
PMID: 18361744

Grapefruit Improves Bone Quality in Orchidectomized Rats


Grapefruit pulp increases antioxidant status and improves bone quality in orchidectomized rats.

Orchidectomy causes oxidative stress and increases the incidence of osteoporosis. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether eating grapefruit pulp (GP) modifies antioxidant status and reduces osteoporosis in orchidectomized rats.
Fifty-six 90-d-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: sham-control group (n = 14) and orchidectomized (ORX) group (n = 42). The orchidectomized group was equally divided among the following three treatments: orchidectomy, orchidectomy + 5.0% GP, and orchidectomy + 10% GP. At the termination of the study (day 60), all rats were euthanized and the plasma was collected for antioxidant status and indices of bone turnover. Bone quality and mineral contents in the bone, urine, and feces were evaluated.
Orchidectomy lowered (P < 0.05) antioxidant status, bone quality, bone mineral contents and elevated (P < 0.05) indices of bone turnover, urinary deoxypyridinoline, and fecal calcium excretion. In contrast to the ORX group, independent of dosage, antioxidant status, bone density, and delayed time-induced femoral fracture were higher (P < 0.05) in the GP groups, whereas fecal calcium excretion and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion were lowered (P < 0.05). GP dose-dependently slowed down bone turnover (P < 0.05), elevated bone calcium and magnesium contents (P < 0.05), tended to lower urinary excretion of magnesium, and numerically improved bone strength.
The beneficial effects of eating red grapefruit on bone quality of ORX rats is due to bone mineral deposition and slowed-down bone turnover.

Deyhim F, Mandadi K, Patil BS, Faraji B
Nutrition Oct 2008
PMID: 18595661

Citrus Positively Affects Bone Strength in Rats


Citrus juice modulates bone strength in male senescent rat model of osteoporosis.

An experiment evaluated the effect of citrus juice on enhancing serum antioxidant status and on osteoporosis prevention in orchidectomized rats.
Thirty-six 1-y-old male rats were randomized to two groups: a sham-control group (n = 9) and an orchidectomized group (n = 27). The orchidectomized group was divided into three groups of nine and assigned to one of the following treatments: orchidectomy, orchidectomy plus orange juice, and orchidectomy plus grapefruit juice. Sixty days after initiation of the study, all rats were killed, blood was collected, and serum was harvested for total antioxidant status and indices of bone formation and resorption. Femoral density and biomechanical properties were monitored.
Orchidectomy decreased (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity, femoral density, and biomechanical properties and increased (P < 0.05) alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline compared with the sham-control group. In contrast to orchidectomy, orchidectomy plus orange juice and orchidectomy plus grapefruit juice reversed (P < 0.05) orchidectomy-induced antioxidant suppression, decreased (P < 0.05) alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities, moderately restored (P = 0.07) femoral density, increased (P < 0.05) femoral strength, significantly delayed time-induced femoral fracture, and decreased (P < 0.05) urinary excretion of hydroxyproline.
The present study supports the supposition in that drinking citrus juice positively affects serum antioxidant status and bone strength.

Deyhim F, Garica K, Lopez E, Gonzalez J…
Nutrition May 2006
PMID: 16472977

Cranberry Inhibits Osteoclasts In Vitro


A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the RANKL-dependent differentiation and function of human osteoclasts.

This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold) and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

Tanabe S, Santos J, La VD, Howell AB…
Molecules 2011
PMID: 21399573 | Free Full Text

Cranberry Juice No Effect on Bone Quality in Rats


Cranberry juice improved antioxidant status without affecting bone quality in orchidectomized male rats.

We reported that drinking citrus juice improves bone quality in orchidectomized senescent male rats. Because cranberry juice, like citrus, is rich in nutrients and phenolic compounds, beneficial effects of citrus juice might also be seen with cranberry juice. An experiment evaluated effect of drinking cranberry juice on bone quality in orchidectomized rats.
Thirty-two 1-year-old male rats were randomized to two groups: a sham-control group (n=8) and an orchidectomized group (n=24). The treatments for the 4 months duration of the study were SHAM, orchidectomy (ORX), ORX+drinking either 27% or 45% cranberry juice concentrate added to drinking water. At the termination of the study, the rats were euthanized, blood was collected for plasma antioxidant status and IGF-I. The femur, tibia and the 4th lumbar were evaluated for bone quality. Total calcium and magnesium concentration in the femurs were also evaluated.
ORX did not affect red blood cell (RBC)-induced hemolysis despite lowering (p<0.05) plasma antioxidant capacity; reduced (p<0.05) plasma IGF-I, femoral density, femoral strength, time-induced femoral fracture, bone mineral content, bone mineral area; numerically (p=0.07) lowered 4th lumbar density; decreased (p<0.05) trabecular connectivity, trabecular number, femoral ash; increased (p<0.05) trabecular separation in comparison to the SHAM group. Drinking cranberry juice increased (p<0.05) plasma antioxidant status, protected RBC against hemolysis, but had no positive effect on bone quality or bone mineral status.
Cranberry juice increases plasma antioxidant status without affecting bone quality.

Villarreal A, Stoecker BJ, Garcia C, Garcia K…
Phytomedicine Dec 2007
PMID: 17481874

Propolis Inhibits IL-17


Suppression of interleukin 17 production by Brazilian propolis in mice with collagen-induced arthritis.

Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from leaf buds and cracks in the bark of various plants. Propolis has been reported to have immunomodulatory activity. We hypothesized that propolis would be able to reduce the disease severity of rheumatoid arthritis. We evaluated the effect of Brazilian propolis ethanolic extract on the pathogenesis of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Mice fed propolis exhibited significant lower clinical arthritis scores than those fed the control diet. To investigate the mechanism of the effect of propolis on CIA mice, we examined interleukin-17 (IL-17) production in CIA mice fed propolis using an enzyme-linked immunospot assay and flow cytometric analysis. The numbers of IL-17-producing cells in the CIA mice fed propolis were significantly decreased. To determine direct influence of propolis on cytokine production, splenocytes were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate in the presence of propolis extract in vitro. Concentration-dependent declines in IL-17 expression were observed by ELISA and real-time PCR methods. We further found that propolis significantly inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells from murine splenocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results may provide a new light on the potential mechanism of the immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of propolis.

Tanaka M, Okamoto Y, Fukui T, Masuzawa T
Inflammopharmacology Feb 2012
PMID: 21861090

IL-17 is implicated in osteoporosis.

IL-17 may Contribute to Osteoporosis in Mice


Estrogen deficiency induces the differentiation of IL-17 secreting Th17 cells: a new candidate in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

Th17 cells produce IL-17, and the latter promotes bone loss in collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Blocking IL-17 action in mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis reduces disease symptoms. These observations suggest that Th17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of bone loss. However, the role of Th17 cell in estrogen (E2) deficiency-induced bone loss is still not very clear. We investigated the effect of E2 on Th17 differentiation in vivo and IL-17 mediated regulation of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation. Additionally, effect of IL-17 functional block under E2 deficiency-induced bone loss was studied. In murine bone marrow cells, E2 suppressed IL-17 mediated osteoclast differentiation. IL-17 inhibited formation of mineralized nodules in osteoblasts and this effect was suppressed by E2. E2 treatment to mouse calvarial osteoblasts inhibited the IL-17-induced production of osteoclastogenic cytokines and NF-kB translocation. In ovariectomized mice, there was increase in the number of Th17 cells, transcription factors promoting Th17 cell differentiation and circulating IL-17 levels. These effects were reversed by E2 supplementation. Treatment of neutralizing IL-17 monoclonal antibody to Ovx mice mitigated the E2 deficiency-induced trabecular bone loss and reversed the decreased osteoprotegerin-to-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) transcript levels in long bones, increased osteoclast differentiation from the bone marrow precursor cells and decreased osteoblast differentiation from the bone marrow stromal cells. Our findings indicate that E2 deficiency leads to increased differentiation of Th17 cells with attendant up regulation of STAT3, ROR-γt and ROR-α and downregulation of Foxp3 which antagonizes Th17 cell differentiation. Increased IL-17 production in turn induces bone loss by increasing pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and RANKL from osteoblasts and functional block of IL-17 prevents bone loss. IL-17 thus plays a critical causal role in Ovx-induced bone loss and may be considered a potential therapeutic target in pathogenesis of post menopausal osteoporosis.

Tyagi AM, Srivastava K, Mansoori MN, Trivedi R…
PLoS ONE 2012
PMID: 22970248 | Free Full Text

EPA and DHA may Decrease, but GLA may Increase, Osteoclasts in Mouse Cells


Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter membrane-bound RANK-L expression and osteoprotegerin secretion by MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells.

Inflammation triggers an increase in osteoclast (bone resorbing cell) number and activity. Osteoclastogenesis is largely controlled by a triad of proteins consisting of a receptor (RANK), a ligand (RANK-L) and a decoy receptor (osteoprotegerin, OPG). Whilst RANK is expressed by osteoclasts, RANK-L and OPG are expressed by osteoblasts. The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are pro-inflammatory and PGE2 is a potent stimulator of RANKL expression. Various LCPUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6) have anti-inflammatory activity. We aimed to determine if AA itself can stimulate RANKL expression and whether EPA, DHA and GLA inhibit RANKL expression in osteoblasts. MC3T3-E1/4 osteoblast-like cells were cultured under standard conditions with each of the LCPUFAs (5microg/ml) for 48h. Membrane-bound RANKL expression was measured by flow cytometry and OPG secretion measured by ELISA. In a second experiment, RANKL expression in MC3T3-E1/4 cells was stimulated by PGE2 treatment and the effect of EPA, DHA and GLA on membrane-bound RANKL expression and OPG secretion determined. The percentage of RANKL-positive cells was higher (p<0.05) than controls following treatment with AA or GLA but not after co-treatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. DHA and EPA had no effect on membrane-bound RANKL expression under standard cell culture conditions. Secretion of OPG was lower (p<0.05) in AA-treated cells but not significantly different from controls in GLA, EPA or DHA treated cells. Treatment with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) resulted in an increase (p<0.05) in the percentage of RANK-L positive cells and a decrease (p<0.05) in mean OPG secretion. The percentage of RANKL positive cells was significantly lower following co-treatment with PGE2 and either DHA or EPA compared to treatment with PGE2 alone. Mean OPG secretion remained lower than controls in cells treated with PGE2 regardless of co-treatment with EPA or DHA. Results from this study suggest COX products of GLA and AA induce membrane-bound RANKL expression in MC3T3-E1/4 cells. EPA and DHA have no effect on membrane-bound RANKL expression in cells cultured under standard conditions however both EPA and DHA inhibit the PGE2-induced increase in RANKL expression in MC3T3-E1/4 cells.

Poulsen RC, Wolber FM, Moughan PJ, Kruger MC
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. Feb 2008
PMID: 18077200

Coconut oil Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats


Virgin coconut oil supplementation prevents bone loss in osteoporosis rat model.

Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO). Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.

Hayatullina Z, Muhammad N, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012
PMID: 23024690 | Free Full Text

High-Fat Diet of Flaxseed or Safflower Oils Improve Bone Strength in Rats; Coconut Oil No Benefit


Influence of high-fat diet from differential dietary sources on bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone fatty acid composition in rats.

Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diets that differ in fat quality, representing diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or n-6 PUFA, on femur bone mineral density (BMD), strength, and fatty acid composition. Forty-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 65 days on high-fat diets (20% by weight), containing coconut oil (SFA; n = 10), flaxseed oil (n-3 PUFA; n = 10), or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA; n = 11). Chow-fed rats (n = 10), at 105 days of age, were included to represent animals on a control diet. Rats fed high-fat diets had higher body weights than the chow-fed rats (p < 0.001). Among all high-fat groups, there were no differences in femur BMD (p > 0.05) or biomechanical strength properties (p > 0.05). Femurs of groups fed either the high n-3 or high n-6 PUFA diets were stronger (as measured by peak load) than those of the chow-fed group, after adjustment for significant differences in body weight (p = 0.001). As expected, the femur fatty acid profile reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet consumed. These results suggest that high-fat diets, containing high levels of PUFA in the form of flaxseed or safflower oil, have a positive effect on bone strength when fed to male rats 6 to 15 weeks of age.

Lau BY, Fajardo VA, McMeekin L, Sacco SM…
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab Oct 2010
PMID: 20962915