Category Archives: Exercise

Breakfast and Exercise in High School Increases Bone Density in Men


Consuming breakfast and exercising longer during high school increases bone mineral density in young adult men.

We examined the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of young adult men and analyzed the factors associated with BMD differences. Between 1993 and 2002, all male freshmen in the Wakayama Medical University, Japan were recruited into the present study, which included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine and hip. Of a total of 387 freshmen, 382 (98.7 %; mean age, 20.3 years; age range, 18-29 years) completed the study. The mean BMDs of the spine (L2-4) and femoral neck (FN) were 1.21 (standard deviation, 0.13) g/cm(2) and 1.12 (0.14) g/cm(2), respectively. The L2-4 BMDs were not associated with age, while FN BMDs were significantly inversely associated with age. The BMDs at L2-4 and FN were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, multivariate regression analysis indicated that BMDs at L2-4 and FN were associated with current longer exercise duration (L2-4, p = 0.024; FN, p = 0.001), those at L2-4 with milk intake (p = 0.024), and those at FN with consuming breakfast (p = 0.004). Similarly, habits of consuming breakfast and exercising longer (on a weekly basis) during high school were linked with significantly higher L2-4 and FN BMDs. High-impact activities during high school significantly influenced the later BMDs. In conclusion, to maximize peak bone mass, consuming breakfast and completing a longer duration of stronger exercise in the late high school years for at least 10 h per week is recommended.

Ishimoto Y, Yoshida M, Nagata K, Yamada H…
J. Bone Miner. Metab. May 2013
PMID: 23263782

Breakfast and Exercise Important for Bone Mass in Young Adults


Skipping breakfast and less exercise are risk factors for bone loss in young Japanese adults: a 3-year follow-up study.

Although bone loss contributes to osteoporosis (OP) in the elderly, little is known about changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults that lead to bone loss. Here, we evaluated the rate of bone change and risk factors for bone loss in young men and women using data from a 3-year prospective study of Japanese medical students. The study included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck (FN). After 3 years, the BMD of the participants was again measured at the same sites. In all, 458 students (95.4 %; 298 men and 160 women; age range, 18-29 years; mean age, 20.2 years) completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean L2-L4 BMD value at baseline increased significantly within 3 years. This tendency was also observed for the FN in men but not in women. The annual changes at L2-L4 were 1.78 % in men and 0.97 % in women per year; those for FN were 1.08 % in men and 0.08 % in women per year. However, 20.3 % and 38.5 % of the total freshmen lost BMD in the lumbar spine and FN, respectively. After adjustment for age and body mass index, logistic regression analysis revealed that bone loss in men at L2-L4 at the baseline was affected by skipping breakfast. In contrast, exercise (>2 h/week) increased lumbar spine BMD in both genders. These findings indicate that breakfast and exercise are important for maintaining BMD in young men and women.

Nagata K, Yoshida M, Ishimoto Y, Hashizume H…
J. Bone Miner. Metab. Sep 2013
PMID: 24052206

Review: Exercise Only Beneficial with Calcium > 1000mg per Day


Evidence for an interaction between calcium intake and physical activity on changes in bone mineral density.

Results of trials on the effects of physical activity on bone mineral density (BMD) are conflicting. The current hypothesis was that calcium intake modifies the bone response to physical activity. Published trials on physical activity and bone density were reviewed, and the results of 17 trials are summarized. Physical activity has beneficial effects on BMD at high calcium intakes, with no effect at mean calcium intakes less than a mean of 1000 mg/day. The modifying effect of calcium intake on BMD among exercise groups is more pronounced in the lumbar spine than in the radius. This analysis may explain conflicting results of trials on physical activity and calcium effects on bone. Controlled trials designed to test adequately this hypothesis are needed.

Specker BL
J. Bone Miner. Res. Oct 1996
PMID: 8889855

Tango Dancing Improves Balance and Posture


Dancing for balance: feasibility and efficacy in oldest-old adults with visual impairment.

Fall risk increases with age and visual impairment, yet the oldest-old adults (>85 years) are rarely studied. Partnered dance improves mobility, balance, and quality of life in older individuals with movement impairment.
The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility and participant satisfaction of an adapted tango program amongst these oldest-old adults with visual impairment. Exploratory analyses were conducted to determine efficacy of the program in improving balance and gait.
In a repeated-measures, one-group experimental design, 13 older adults (7 women; age: M = 86.9 years, SD = 5.9 years, range = 77-95 years) with visual impairment (best eye acuity: M = 0.63, SD = 0.6 logMAR) participated in an adapted tango program of twenty 1.5-hour lessons, within 11 weeks. Feasibility included evaluation of facility access, safety, volunteer assistant retention, and participant retention and satisfaction. Participants were evaluated for balance, lower body strength, and quality of life in two baseline observations, immediately after the program and 1 month later.
Twelve participants completed the program. The facility was adequate, no injuries were sustained, and participants and volunteers were retained throughout. Participants reported enjoyment and improvements in physical well-being. Exploratory measures of dynamic postural control (p < .001), lower body strength (p = .056), and general vision-related quality of life (p = .032) scores showed improvements following training.
These older individuals with visual impairment benefitted from 30 hours of tango instruction adapted for their capabilities.

Hackney ME, Hall CD, Echt KV, Wolf SL
Nurs Res March 2013
PMID: 23458910

Dance Dance Revolution Improves Gait and Walking Speed in Older Adults


A cognitive-motor intervention using a dance video game to enhance foot placement accuracy and gait under dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

Computer-based interventions have demonstrated consistent positive effects on various physical abilities in older adults. This study aims to compare two training groups that achieve similar amounts of strength and balance exercise where one group receives an intervention that includes additional dance video gaming. The aim is to investigate the different effects of the training programs on physical and psychological parameters in older adults.
Thirty-one participants (mean age ± SD: 86.2 ± 4.6 years), residents of two Swiss hostels for the aged, were randomly assigned to either the dance group (n = 15) or the control group (n = 16). The dance group absolved a twelve-week cognitive-motor exercise program twice weekly that comprised progressive strength and balance training supplemented with additional dance video gaming. The control group performed only the strength and balance exercises during this period. Outcome measures were foot placement accuracy, gait performance under single and dual task conditions, and falls efficacy.
After the intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for gait velocity (U = 26, P = .041, r = .45) and for single support time (U = 24, P = .029, r = .48) during the fast walking dual task condition in favor of the dance group. No significant between-group differences were observed either in the foot placement accuracy test or in falls efficacy.
There was a significant interaction in favor of the dance video game group for improvements in step time. Significant improved fast walking performance under dual task conditions (velocity, double support time, step length) was observed for the dance video game group only. These findings suggest that in older adults a cognitive-motor intervention may result in more improved gait under dual task conditions in comparison to a traditional strength and balance exercise program.

Pichierri G, Murer K, de Bruin ED
BMC Geriatr 2012
PMID: 23241332 | Free Full Text

Greek Dancing Improves Balance in Older Adults


Effect of a 10-week traditional dance program on static and dynamic balance control in elderly adults.

This preliminary study examined the effect of a 10-wk traditional Greek dance program on static and dynamic balance indices in healthy elderly adults. Twenty-six community-dwelling older adults were randomly assigned to either an intervention group who took supervised Greek traditional dance classes for 10 wk (1 hr, 2 sessions/week, n = 14), or a control group (n = 12). Balance was assessed pre- and postintervention by recording the center-of-pressure (COP) variations and trunk kinematics during performance of the Sharpened-Romberg test, 1-leg (OL) stance, and dynamic weight shifting (WS). After practice, the dance group significantly decreased COP displacement and trunk sway in OL stance. A significant increase in the range of trunk rotation was noted during performance of dynamic WS in the sagittal and frontal planes. These findings support the use of traditional dance as an effective means of physical activity for improving static and dynamic balance control in the elderly.

Sofianidis G, Hatzitaki V, Douka S, Grouios G
J Aging Phys Act Apr 2009
PMID: 19451666

Salsa Dancing Improves Posture and Stride in Older Adults


Effects of a salsa dance training on balance and strength performance in older adults.

Deficits in static and particularly dynamic postural control and force production have frequently been associated with an increased risk of falling in older adults.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of salsa dancing on measures of static/dynamic postural control and leg extensor power in seniors.
Twenty-eight healthy older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT, n = 14, age 71.6 ± 5.3 years) to conduct an 8-week progressive salsa dancing programme or a control group (CON, n = 14, age 68.9 ± 4.7 years). Static postural control was measured during one-legged stance on a balance platform and dynamic postural control was obtained while walking on an instrumented walkway. Leg extensor power was assessed during a countermovement jump on a force plate.
Programme compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92.5% of the dancing sessions. A tendency towards an improvement in the selected measures of static postural control was observed in the INT group as compared to the CON group. Significant group × test interactions were found for stride velocity, length and time. Post hoc analyses revealed significant increases in stride velocity and length, and concomitant decreases in stride time. However, salsa dancing did not have significant effects on various measures of gait variability and leg extensor power.
Salsa proved to be a safe and feasible exercise programme for older adults accompanied with a high adherence rate. Age-related deficits in measures of static and particularly dynamic postural control can be mitigated by salsa dancing in older adults. High physical activity and fitness/mobility levels of our participants could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in gait variability and leg extensor power.

Granacher U, Muehlbauer T, Bridenbaugh SA, Wolf M…
Gerontology 2012
PMID: 22236951

Risk Factors for Hip Fracture in 9,516 White Women


Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.

Many risk factors for hip fractures have been suggested but have not been evaluated in a comprehensive prospective study.
We assessed potential risk factors, including bone mass, in 9516 white women 65 years of age or older who had had no previous hip fracture. We then followed these women at 4-month intervals for an average of 4.1 years to determine the frequency of hip fracture. All reports of hip fractures were validated by review of x-ray films.
During the follow-up period, 192 women had first hip fractures not due to motor vehicle accidents. In multivariable age-adjusted analyses, a maternal history of hip fracture doubled the risk of hip fracture (relative risk, 2.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 2.9), and the increase in risk remained significant after adjustment for bone density. Women who had gained weight since the age of 25 had a lower risk. The risk was higher among women who had previous fractures of any type after the age of 50, were tall at the age of 25, rated their own health as fair or poor, had previous hyperthyroidism, had been treated with long-acting benzodiazepines or anticonvulsant drugs, ingested greater amounts of caffeine, or spent four hours a day or less on their feet. Examination findings associated with an increased risk included the inability to rise from a chair without using one’s arms, poor depth perception, poor contrast sensitivity, and tachycardia at rest. Low calcaneal bone density was also an independent risk factor. The incidence of hip fracture ranged from 1.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.5 to 1.6) per 1,000 woman-years among women with no more than two risk factors and normal calcaneal bone density for their age to 27 (95 percent confidence interval, 20 to 34) per 1,000 woman-years among those with five or more risk factors and bone density in the lowest third for their age.
Women with multiple risk factors and low bone density have an especially high risk of hip fracture. Maintaining body weight, walking for exercise, avoiding long-acting benzodiazepines, minimizing caffeine intake, and treating impaired visual function are among the steps that may decrease the risk.

Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K…
N. Engl. J. Med. Mar 1995
PMID: 7862179 | Free Full Text

Review: Exercises to Reduce Falls, and Improve Gait and Balance


Effects of different exercise interventions on risk of falls, gait ability, and balance in physically frail older adults: a systematic review.

The aim of this review was to recommend training strategies that improve the functional capacity in physically frail older adults based on scientific literature, focusing specially in supervised exercise programs that improved muscle strength, fall risk, balance, and gait ability. Scielo, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, Sport Discus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from 1990 to 2012. Studies must have mentioned the effects of exercise training on at least one of the following four parameters: Incidence of falls, gait, balance, and lower-body strength. Twenty studies that investigated the effects of multi-component exercise training (10), resistance training (6), endurance training (1), and balance training (3) were included in the present revision. Ten trials investigated the effects of exercise on the incidence of falls in elderly with physical frailty. Seven of them have found a fewer falls incidence after physical training when compared with the control group. Eleven trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on the gait ability. Six of them showed enhancements in the gait ability. Ten trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on the balance performance and seven of them demonstrated enhanced balance. Thirteen trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on the muscle strength and nine of them showed increases in the muscle strength. The multi-component exercise intervention composed by strength, endurance and balance training seems to be the best strategy to improve rate of falls, gait ability, balance, and strength performance in physically frail older adults.

Cadore EL, Rodríguez-Mañas L, Sinclair A, Izquierdo M
Rejuvenation Res Apr 2013
PMID: 23327448 | Free Full Text

Exercise Limits Effects of Excessive Alcohol on Bone in Rats


Regular exercise limits alcohol effects on trabecular, cortical thickness and porosity, and osteocyte apoptosis in the rat.

Excessive alcohol consumption is known to be a cause of secondary osteoporosis whereas physical activity is recommended in prevention of osteoporosis. This study was designed to analyze the effects of physical exercise on bone parameters in chronic alcohol-fed rats.
Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Control (C), Alcohol (A), Exercise (E) and Alcohol+Exercise (AE). A and AE groups drank a solution composed of ethanol and water (35% volume/volume for 17 weeks). E and AE groups were submitted to treadmill training for 14 weeks (60 min/day, 5 times/week). Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by DXA, the trabecular and cortical microarchitectural parameters by microCT and serum osteocalcin, NTx and leptin concentrations by ELISA assays. Bone mechanical parameters were evaluated through mechanical testing. Osteocyte apoptosis was analyzed with cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining.
Alcohol-fed rats had significantly lower body weight (-28%), fat (-46%) and lean mass (-25%) compared to controls. BMD (-8%), trabecular (-12%) and cortical thickness (-27%) were significantly lower with alcohol whereas porosity (+38%) and pore number (+42%) were higher. Exercise combined with alcohol prevented lower Tb.Th (+20%), Ct.Th (+30%), stress (+26%) and higher Ct.Po (-24%) and osteocyte apoptosis (-91%) compared to A. However, WB BMD (-4%) and femur BMD were still lower in AE versus C.
Regular physical activity has beneficial effects on some microarchitectural parameters in alcohol-fed rats. However, regular treadmill exercise does not compensate for the effects of heavy chronic alcohol consumption on whole body bone density.

Maurel DB, Boisseau N, Pallu S, Rochefort GY…
Joint Bone Spine Oct 2013
PMID: 23380443