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Quercetin Inhibits Bone Loss Without Affecting Osteoclasts or Estrogen Receptors in Ovariectomized Mice


Dietary quercetin inhibits bone loss without effect on the uterus in ovariectomized mice.

Quercetin is a major dietary flavonoid found in onions and other vegetables, and potentially has beneficial effects on disease prevention. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time the effects of dietary quercetin on bone loss and uterine weight loss by ovariectomy in vivo. Female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and were randomly allocated to 3 groups: a control diet or a diet with 0.25% (LQ) or 2.5% quercetin (HQ). After 4 weeks, dietary quercetin had no effects on uterine weight in OVX mice, but bone mineral density of the lumbar spine L4 and femur measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was higher in both the sham and the HQ groups than in the OVX group. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the HQ group restored bone volume (BV/TV) completely in distal femoral cancellous bone, but did not reduce the osteoclast surface area and osteoclast number when compared with the OVX group. In in-vitro experiments using mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells, however, quercetin and its conjugate, quercetin-3-O-beta-D: -glucuronide dose-dependently inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation, and the RANKL-stimulated expression of osteoclast related genes was also inhibited by quercetin. The luciferase reporter assay showed that quercetin did not appear to have estrogenic activity through estrogen receptors. These results suggest that dietary quercetin inhibits bone loss without effect on the uterus in OVX mice and does not act as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis or as a selective estrogen receptor modulator in vivo.

Tsuji M, Yamamoto H, Sato T, Mizuha Y…
J. Bone Miner. Metab. 2009
PMID: 19495926

Interesting, I wonder how it works if it doesn’t inhibit osteoclasts in vivo and isn’t estrogenic?

HRT + Exercise No Benefit Over HRT Alone


Effects of exercise training on bone remodeling, insulin-like growth factors, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with and without hormone replacement therapy.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 months of weight bearing and resistance exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone remodeling (bone formation and bone resorption) in 2 groups of postmenopausal women either with or without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Secondary aims were to characterize the changes in insulin-like growth factors-1 and -2 (IGF-1 and -2) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) in response to exercise training. Women who were 3-10 years postmenopausal (aged 40-65 years) were included in the study. Women in the HRT and no HRT groups were randomized into the exercise intervention, resulting in four groups: (1) women not taking HRT, not exercising; (2) those taking HRT, not exercising; (3) those exercising, not taking HRT; and (4) women exercising, taking HRT. The number of subjects per group after 1 year was 27, 21, 25, and 17, respectively. HRT increased BMD at most sites whereas the combination of exercise and HRT produced increases in BMD greater than either treatment alone. Exercise training alone resulted in modest site-specific increases in BMD. Bone remodeling was suppressed in the groups taking HRT regardless of exercise status. The bone remodeling response to exercise training in women not taking HRT was not significantly different from those not exercising. However, the direction of change suggests an elevation in bone remodeling in response to exercise training, a phenomenon usually associated with bone loss. No training-induced differences in IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-l:IGF-2 (IGF-1 : IGF-2), and IGFBP3 were detected.

Milliken LA, Going SB, Houtkooper LB, Flint-Wagner HG…
Calcif. Tissue Int. Apr 2003
PMID: 12574871

What kind of exercise where they doing?