Human osteopenic bone-derived osteoblasts: essential amino acids treatment effects.
The development of in vitro cell culture methods has made it possible to study bone cell metabolism and growth and obtain a deeper insight into the pathophysiology of common orthopedic diseases such as osteoporosis. After analyzing the effect of two essential amino acids, L-arginine (Arg) and L-lysine (Lys), in previous in vitro and in vivo studies, the present authors investigated the administration of Arg and Lys in osteoblasts derived from human osteopenic bone. After isolation, osteoblasts were cultured in DMEM supplemented with either Arg (0.625 mg/ml/day, Arg Group) or Lys (0.587 mg/ml/day, Lys Group), or both of them (Arg-Lys Group), whereas the Control Group was sham-treated. After 7 days the following parameters were tested in all groups: MTT proliferation test, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Nitric Oxide (NO), Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Osteocalcin (OC), C-Terminal Procollagen type I (PICP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I). Results were compared with those obtained from human healthy bone to verify the effect of the amino acids on osteoblasts derived from pathological tissue. In addition, a comparison was also made with the results obtained from rat osteopenic bone to assess reliability of the in vitro model. The current results support previous findings and indicate that Arg and Lys stimulation has a positive effect on osteoblast proliferation, activation and differentiation. Therefore, administration of these amino acids may be useful in clinical treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.
Torricelli P, Fini M, Giavaresi G, Giardino R
Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol Feb 2003
Dietary silicon and arginine affect mineral element composition of rat femur and vertebra.
Both arginine and silicon affect collagen formation and bone mineralization. Thus, an experiment was designed to determine if dietary arginine would alter the effect of dietary silicon on bone mineralization and vice versa. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups of 12 in a 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment. Supplemented to a ground corn/casein basal diet containing 2.3 microg Si/g and adequate arginine were silicon as sodium metasilicate at 0 or 35 microg/g diet and arginine at 0 or 5 mg/g diet. The rats were fed ad libitum deionized water and their respective diets for 8 wk. Body weight, liver weight/body weight ratio, and plasma silicon were decreased, and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was increased by silicon deprivation. Silicon deprivation also decreased femoral calcium, copper, potassium, and zinc concentrations, but increased the femoral manganese concentration. Arginine supplementation decreased femoral molybdenum concentration but increased the femoral manganese concentration. Vertebral concentrations of phosphorus, sodium, potassium, copper, manganese, and zinc were decreased by silicon deprivation. Arginine supplementation increased vertebral concentrations of sodium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and iron. The arginine effects were more marked in the silicon-deprived animals, especially in the vertebra. Germanium concentrations of the femur and vertebra were affected by an interaction between silicon and arginine; the concentrations were decreased by silicon deprivation in those animals not fed supplemental arginine. The change in germanium is consistent with a previous finding by us suggesting that this element may be physiologically important, especially as related to bone DNA concentrations. The femoral and vertebral mineral findings support the contention that silicon has a physiological role in bone formation and that arginine intake can affect that role.
Seaborn CD, Nielsen FH
Biol Trace Elem Res Dec 2002
Arginine is an essential amino acid for the rat. In animals L-arginine apparently induces growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 responses and stimulates nitric oxide synthase. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 are important mediators of bone turnover and osteoblastic bone formation, whereas nitric oxide is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption (1). By affecting these physiological regulators of bone remodeling, L-arginine could potentially increase bone formation over bone resorption and, consequently, increase bone mass.
There is experimental evidence suggesting that arginine supplementation promotes bone formation. A mixture of lactose, L-arginine, and L-lysine improved fracture healing of rabbits subjected to an osteotomy of the left fibula (2). These authors suggested that arginine was involved not only in the increase of intestinal calcium absorption but also in collagen synthesis. Although there is evidence that L-arginine affects bone maintenance minimal attention has been given to the possible interaction between arginine and other macro and/or trace minerals, including silicon associated with mineralized bone formation and remodeling.
Silicon can affect bone formation and remodeling (3). The basic amino acids such as arginine can increase silicon absorption (4). Therefore the effects of silicon on bone mineralization may be modified by the amount of arginine in the diet….
Effect of dietary taurine and arginine supplementation on bone mineral density in growing female rats.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of arginine or -taurine alone and taurine plus arginine on bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone formation and bone resorption in growing female rats. Forty female SD rats (75 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into four groups (control, taurine, arginine, taurine + arginine group) and treatment lasted for 9 weeks. All rats were fed on a diet and deionized water. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured using PIXImus (GE Lunar Co, Wisconsin, USA) in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, and the bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline cross-links. Femur BMD was significantly increased in the group with taurine supplementation and femur BMC/weight was significantly increased in the group with arginine + taurine supplementation. Rats fed an arginine or taurine supplemental diet increased femur BMD or femur BMC, but a taurine + arginine-supplemented diet does not have a better effect than arginine or taurine alone in the spine BMD. The femur BMC, expressed per body weight, was higher in arginine + taurine group than in the taurine or arginine group. The results of this study suggest that taurine + arginine supplementation may be beneficial on femur BMC in growing female rats. Additional work is needed to clarify the interactive effects between the taurine and arginine to determine whether dietary intakes of arginine and taurine affect bone quality in growing rats.
Choi MJ, Chang KJ
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2013