Category Archives: Breakfast

Skipping Breakfast Associated with Lower Bone Density in Young Women


Relationship between skipping breakfast and bone mineral density in young Japanese women.

It is well known that insufficient nutrient intake leads to poor bone status. To find a simple evaluation method for prevention of nutrition intake disorder, a cross-sectional study with 275 healthy Japanese female students aged 19-25 was conducted.
Anthropometric parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar and total hip, bone metabolic markers and physical activity were measured in study participants and the frequency of skipping meals (breakfast, lunch, supper), and absolute values for nutrient intakes were assessed using a Diet History Questionnaire.
The frequency of skipping breakfast significantly correlate to total energy intake (ρ= -0.276, p<0.001). BMI, total intake of energy, intake of protein, intake of phosphate, and energy expenditure positively correlated significantly to BMD at lumbar and total hip (p<0.05) using simple linear regression. BMI (regression coefficient (b))=0.088, p<0.001), bone alkaline phosphatase (b= -0.050, p=0.012), total energy expenditure (b=0.019, p<0.001), and frequency of skipping breakfast (b= -0.018, p=0.048) were independent risk factors for lower total hip BMD by multiple regression analysis. The total hip BMD in participants who skipped breakfast three or more times was significantly lower than in those who did not skip breakfast (p=0.007).
In conclusion, managing the frequency of skipping breakfast and reducing it to <3 times per week may be beneficial for the maintenance of bone health in younger women.

Kuroda T, Onoe Y, Yoshikata R, Ohta H
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2013
PMID: 24231019 | Free Full Text

Breakfast and Exercise in High School Increases Bone Density in Men


Consuming breakfast and exercising longer during high school increases bone mineral density in young adult men.

We examined the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of young adult men and analyzed the factors associated with BMD differences. Between 1993 and 2002, all male freshmen in the Wakayama Medical University, Japan were recruited into the present study, which included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine and hip. Of a total of 387 freshmen, 382 (98.7 %; mean age, 20.3 years; age range, 18-29 years) completed the study. The mean BMDs of the spine (L2-4) and femoral neck (FN) were 1.21 (standard deviation, 0.13) g/cm(2) and 1.12 (0.14) g/cm(2), respectively. The L2-4 BMDs were not associated with age, while FN BMDs were significantly inversely associated with age. The BMDs at L2-4 and FN were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, multivariate regression analysis indicated that BMDs at L2-4 and FN were associated with current longer exercise duration (L2-4, p = 0.024; FN, p = 0.001), those at L2-4 with milk intake (p = 0.024), and those at FN with consuming breakfast (p = 0.004). Similarly, habits of consuming breakfast and exercising longer (on a weekly basis) during high school were linked with significantly higher L2-4 and FN BMDs. High-impact activities during high school significantly influenced the later BMDs. In conclusion, to maximize peak bone mass, consuming breakfast and completing a longer duration of stronger exercise in the late high school years for at least 10 h per week is recommended.

Ishimoto Y, Yoshida M, Nagata K, Yamada H…
J. Bone Miner. Metab. May 2013
PMID: 23263782

Breakfast and Exercise Important for Bone Mass in Young Adults


Skipping breakfast and less exercise are risk factors for bone loss in young Japanese adults: a 3-year follow-up study.

Although bone loss contributes to osteoporosis (OP) in the elderly, little is known about changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults that lead to bone loss. Here, we evaluated the rate of bone change and risk factors for bone loss in young men and women using data from a 3-year prospective study of Japanese medical students. The study included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck (FN). After 3 years, the BMD of the participants was again measured at the same sites. In all, 458 students (95.4 %; 298 men and 160 women; age range, 18-29 years; mean age, 20.2 years) completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean L2-L4 BMD value at baseline increased significantly within 3 years. This tendency was also observed for the FN in men but not in women. The annual changes at L2-L4 were 1.78 % in men and 0.97 % in women per year; those for FN were 1.08 % in men and 0.08 % in women per year. However, 20.3 % and 38.5 % of the total freshmen lost BMD in the lumbar spine and FN, respectively. After adjustment for age and body mass index, logistic regression analysis revealed that bone loss in men at L2-L4 at the baseline was affected by skipping breakfast. In contrast, exercise (>2 h/week) increased lumbar spine BMD in both genders. These findings indicate that breakfast and exercise are important for maintaining BMD in young men and women.

Nagata K, Yoshida M, Ishimoto Y, Hashizume H…
J. Bone Miner. Metab. Sep 2013
PMID: 24052206