Category Archives: Vitamin B12

Nutrients Correlated With Bone Density


[Validation of questionnaires for the study of food habits and bone mass].

The loss of bone mass and density is influenced by nutritional factors that act on the bone mass peak, age-related bone loss and muscle strength. The objective of the present study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire applied to estimate the relationship between food habits and bone mineral density (BMD) in a healthy adult population.
The results of the food frequency questionnaire were compared with 24-hr recall findings. Calcaneus BMD was measured by densitometry.
The validity of the questionnaire was demonstrated, with Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.014 to 0.467. The Bland-Altman test also found no differences in study variables between the two methods. Correlation analysis showed that the BMD was significantly associated with the intake of vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B12, folate, thiamine and iron. Total fat consumption was not associated with BMD but the intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, EPA, DHA and cholesterol showed a significant correlation.
The questionnaire evaluates the consumption of energy and nutrients with adequate validity. Its application revealed the importance for bone health of a diet rich in B-group vitamins, vitamin D, calcium, iron, monounsaturated fatty acids and n-3.

Rivas A, Romero A, Mariscal M, Monteagudo C…
Nutr Hosp
PMID: 19893861 | Free Full Text | Full Text English Translation

The full text has a very interesting chart with a list of nutrients and their correlation with bone density.

Folate + B12 Offer No Sensomotor Speed Benefit Despite Decreasing Homocysteine


The association of betaine, homocysteine and related metabolites with cognitive function in Dutch elderly people.

The importance of the one-carbon metabolites, choline and homocysteine, to brain function is well known. However, the associations between the one-carbon metabolites choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine with cognition in elderly are unclear. We therefore examined the associations of these metabolites with cognition in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Individuals (n 195) were randomized to receive daily oral capsules with either 1000 microg cobalamin (vitamin B12), or 1000 microg cobalamin plus 400 microg folic acid, or placebo for 24 weeks. Concentrations of homocysteine, methionine, choline, betaine and dimethylglycine were assessed before and after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. Cognitive function, including domains of attention, construction, sensomotor speed, memory and executive function, was assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment. At baseline, elevated plasma homocysteine was associated with lower performance of attention, construction, sensomotor speed and executive function. In addition, betaine was positively associated with better performance of construction, sensomotor speed and executive function, whereas elevated concentrations of methionine were positively associated with sensomotor speed. Daily combined supplementation with cobalamin plus folic acid decreased total homocysteine concentrations by 36%, and increased betaine concentrations by 38%. Participants with the largest increases in betaine concentrations showed a borderline significant (P = 0.07) higher memory performance compared to those without it. Although this trial observed associations of homocysteine and betaine with cognitive domains prior to supplementation, decreased concentrations of homocysteine were not related to improved cognitive performance. There was a tendency of participants with the largest increases in betaine concentrations to show the greatest improvement in memory function.

Eussen SJ, Ueland PM, Clarke R, Blom HJ…
Br. J. Nutr. Nov 2007
PMID: 17537289

Folate, but Not Vitamin B2 or B12, Associated with Increased Done Density in Postmenopausal Women


Dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B2 or B12, is associated with increased bone mineral density 5 years after the menopause: results from a 10-year follow-up study in early postmenopausal women.

Folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), and vitamin B12 may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data on whether dietary intakes affect bone. Our aim was to investigate whether intake of folate, vitamin B2) and vitamin B12, as assessed by food records affects BMD and fracture risk. In a population-based cohort including 1,869 perimenopausal women from the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study, associations between intakes and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Moreover, associations between intakes and 5- and 10-year changes in BMD as well as risk of fracture were studied. Intakes of folate, vitamin B2, and vitamin B12 were 417 (range 290-494) microg/day, 2.70 (range 1.70-3.16) mg/day, and 4.98 (range 3.83-6.62) microg/day, respectively, i.e., slightly above the intakes recommended by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. At year 5, but not at baseline, cross-sectional analyses showed positive correlations between daily intake from diet and from diet plus supplements of folate and BMD at the femoral neck (P < 0.01). However, no associations were found between intakes and changes in BMD. During 10 years of follow-up, 360 subjects sustained a fracture. Compared with 1,440 controls, logistic regression analyses revealed no difference in intakes between cases and controls. A high dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B2 or B12, exerts positive effects on BMD; but further studies are needed to confirm this association.

Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Hermann AP, Brot C…
Calcif. Tissue Int. Jan 2008
PMID: 18175033

Vitamins D + B Improve Bone Markers in Elderly


One year B and D vitamins supplementation improves metabolic bone markers.

Vitamin D and vitamin B deficiency are common in elderly subjects and are important risk factors for osteoporosis and age-related diseases. Supplementation with these vitamins is a promising preventative strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamins D3 and B supplementation on bone turnover and metabolism in elderly people.
Healthy subjects (n=93; >54 years) were randomly assigned to receive either daily vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (0.5 mg), vitamin B12 (0.5 mg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), and calcium carbonate (456 mg) (group A) or only vitamin D3 plus calcium carbonate (group B) in a double blind trial. We measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of supplementation vitamins, metabolites, and bone turnover markers.
At baseline mean plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was low (40 or 30 nmol/L) and parathormone was high (63.7 or 77.9 pg/mL). 25(OH)D and parathormone correlated inversely. S-Adenosyl homocysteine and S-adenosyl methionine correlated with bone alkaline phosphatase, sclerostin, and parathormone. One year vitamin D3 or D3 and B supplementation increased plasma 25(OH)D by median 87.6% (group A) and 133.3% (group B). Parathormone was lowered by median 28.3% (A) and 41.2% (B), bone alkaline phosphatase decreased by 2.8% (A) and 16.2% (B), osteocalin by 37.5% (A) and 49.4% (B), and tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase 5b by 6.1% (A) and 36.0% (B). Median total homocysteine (tHcy) was high at baseline (group A: 12.6, group B: 12.3 µmol/L) and decreased by B vitamins (group A) to 8.9 µmol/L (29.4%). tHcy lowering had no additional effect on bone turnover.
One year vitamin D3 supplementation with or without B vitamins decreased the bone turnover significantly. Vitamin D3 lowered parathormone. The additional application of B vitamins did not further improve bone turnover. The marked tHcy lowering by B vitamins may modulate the osteoporotic risk.

Herrmann W, Kirsch SH, Kruse V, Eckert R…
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. Mar 2013
PMID: 23183751

Folic Acid and B12 Lowers Homocysteine but not Bone Turnover


Folic acid and vitamin B(12) supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine but has no effect on serum bone turnover markers in elderly women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

An elevated homocysteine level is a newly recognized risk factor for osteoporosis. Older individuals may have elevated homocysteine levels due to inadequate folate intake and/or lower absorption of vitamin B(12). The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an impact of folic acid and vitamin B(12) supplementation on homocysteine levels and, subsequently, on bone turnover markers in older women with mildly to moderately elevated homocysteine levels. It is hypothesized that supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B(12) will improve homocysteine levels and, in turn, positively modify bone turnover markers in this population. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 31 women (65 to 93 years) with homocysteine levels greater than 10 μmol/L. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a daily folic acid (800 μg) and vitamin B(12) (1000 μg) (n = 17) or a matching placebo (n = 14) for 4 months. The results showed significantly lower homocysteine concentrations in the vitamin group compared to the placebo group (10.6 vs 18.5 μmol/L, P = .007). No significant difference in serum alkaline phosphatase or C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen was found between the vitamin and placebo groups before or after supplementation. The use of folic acid and vitamin B(12) as a dietary supplement to improve homocysteine levels could be beneficial for older women, but additional research must be conducted in a larger population and for a longer period to determine if there is an impact of supplementation on bone turnover markers or other indicators of bone health.

Keser I, Ilich JZ, Vrkić N, Giljević Z…
Nutr Res Mar 2013
PMID: 23507227

B12 Decreases Fracture Risk


Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, and bone health in adults and elderly people: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

Elevated homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 and folate levels have been associated with deteriorated bone health. This systematic literature review with dose-response meta-analyses summarizes the available scientific evidence on associations of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine status with fractures and bone mineral density (BMD). Twenty-seven eligible cross-sectional (n = 14) and prospective (n = 13) observational studies and one RCT were identified. Meta-analysis on four prospective studies including 7475 people showed a modest decrease in fracture risk of 4% per 50 pmol/L increase in vitamin B12 levels, which was borderline significant (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.00). Meta-analysis of eight studies including 11511 people showed an increased fracture risk of 4% per μ mol/L increase in homocysteine concentration (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.07). We could not draw a conclusion regarding folate levels and fracture risk, as too few studies investigated this association. Meta-analyses regarding vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels, and BMD were possible in female populations only and showed no associations. Results from studies regarding BMD that could not be included in the meta-analyses were not univocal.

van Wijngaarden JP, Doets EL, Szczecińska A, Souverein OW…
J Nutr Metab 2013
PMID: 23509616 | Free Full Text

Low B Vitamins May be Risk for Bone Loss


Plasma B vitamins, homocysteine, and their relation with bone loss and hip fracture in elderly men and women.

Elevated homocysteine is a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures among elders, yet it may be a marker for low B-vitamin status.
Our objective was to examine the associations of plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and homocysteine with bone loss and hip fracture risk in elderly men and women. This was a longitudinal follow-up study of the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.
Community dwelling residents of Framingham, MA, were included in the study.
A total of 1002 men and women (mean age 75 yr) was included in the study.
Baseline (1987-1989) blood samples were used to categorize participants into plasma B-vitamin (normal, low, deficient) and homocysteine (normal, high) groups. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) measured at baseline and 4-yr follow-up was used to calculate annual percent BMD change. Incident hip fracture was assessed from baseline through 2003.
Multivariable-adjusted mean bone loss was inversely associated with vitamin B6 (P for trend 0.01). Vitamins B12 and B6 were inversely associated with hip fracture risk (all P for trend < 0.05), yet associations were somewhat attenuated and not significant after controlling for baseline BMD, serum vitamin D, and homocysteine. Participants with high homocysteine (>14 micromol/liter) had approximately 70% higher hip fracture risk after adjusting for folate and vitamin B6, but this association was attenuated after controlling for vitamin B12 (hazard ratio = 1.49; 95% confidence interval 0.91, 2.46).
Low B-vitamin concentration may be a risk factor for decreased bone health, yet does not fully explain the relation between elevated homocysteine and hip fracture. Thus, homocysteine is not merely a marker for low B-vitamin status.

McLean RR, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Fredman L…
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Jun 2008
PMID: 18364381 | Free Full Text

Low B12 or High Homocysteine Associated with Increased Fracture Risk


Homocysteine and vitamin B12 status relate to bone turnover markers, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and fractures in healthy elderly people.

Hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. The relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 with bone turnover markers, BUA, and fracture incidence was studied in 1267 subjects of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. High Hcy and low vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly associated with low BUA, high markers of bone turnover, and increased fracture risk.
Hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Vitamin B12 is closely correlated to homocysteine (Hcy). The main objective of our study was to examine the association of Hcy and vitamin B12 status and the combined effect of these two with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), bone turnover markers, and fracture.Subjects were 615 men and 652 women with a mean age of 76 +/- 6.6 (SD) years of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). At baseline (1995/1996), blood samples were taken after an overnight fast for dairy products. Plasma Hcy was measured with IMx, serum vitamin B12 with competitive immunoassay (IA) luminescence, serum osteocalcin (OC) with immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), and urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) with competitive IA and corrected for creatinine (Cr) concentration. CVs were 4%, 5%, 8%, and 5%, respectively. BUA was assessed in the heel bone twice in both the right and left calcaneus. Mean BUA value was calculated from these four measurements. CV was 3.4%. After baseline measurements in 1995, a 3-year prospective follow-up of fractures was carried out until 1998/1999. Subjects were grouped by using two different approaches on the basis of their vitamin B12 concentration, normal versus low (<200 pM) or lowest quartile (Q1) versus normal quartiles (Q2-Q4), and Hcy concentration, normal versus high (>15 microM) or highest quartile (Q4) versus normal quartiles (Q1-Q3). Analysis of covariance was performed to calculate mean values of BUA, OC, and DPD/Cr(urine) based on the specified categories of Hcy and vitamin B12 and adjusted for several confounders (potential confounders were age, sex, body weight, body height, current smoking [yes/no], mobility, cognition). The relative risk (RR) of any fracture was assessed with Cox regression analysis. Quartiles were used when Hcy and vitamin B12 were separately studied in their relationship with fracture incidence.
Fourteen percent of the men and 9% of the women had high Hcy (>15 microM) and low vitamin B12 (<200 pM) concentrations. Women with vitamin B12 levels <200 pM and Hcy concentrations >15 microM had lower BUA, higher DPD/Cr, and higher OC concentrations than their counterparts. In men, no differences were found between the different Hcy and vitamin B12 categories in adjusted means of BUA, OC, or DPD/Cr(urine). Twenty-eight men and 43 women sustained a fracture during the 3-year follow-up period. The adjusted RR for fractures (95% CI) for men with high Hcy and/or low vitamin B12 concentrations was 3.8 (1.2-11.6) compared with men with normal Hcy and vitamin B12 concentrations. Women with high Hcy and/or low vitamin B12 concentrations had an adjusted RR for fractures of 2.8 (1.3-5.7).
High Hcy and low vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly associated with low BUA, high markers of bone turnover, and increased fracture risk.

Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, Pluijm SM, de Groot LC, Lips P…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Jun 2005
PMID: 15883631