Category Archives: Calcium Threonate

Calcium Threonate may Influence Bone Mineralization Through its Action on Vitamin C


Pharmacokinetics and safety of calcium L-threonate in healthy volunteers after single and multiple oral administrations.

To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of L-threonate after single or multiple oral administrations and its safety profile in healthy Chinese volunteers. This was an open-label, single- and multiple-dose study. The subjects were assigned to receive a single dose, 675, 2025, or 4050 mg, of calcium L-threonate (n=12) or repeated doses of 2025 mg twice daily for 4 d (n=12). Serial plasma and urine samples were analyzed with HPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters of L-threonate were calculated using non-compartmental analysis with WinNonlin software.
In the single dose group, C(max) reached at 2.0 h and the mean t(1/2) was approximately 2.5 h. Area under curve (AUC) and C(max) increased with dose escalation, but dose proportionality was not observed over the range of 675 to 4050 mg. AUC and C(max) in the fasted subjects were lower compared with those in the non-fasted subjects. Cumulative urinary excretion of L-threonate over 24 h represented 5.9% of the administered dose with a mean Cl/r of 0.8 L/h. In the multiple-dose study, no accumulation appeared upon repeated doses of 2025 mg twice daily for 4 d. There were no serious adverse events that occurred during this study.
Calcium L-threonate was well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects, with no pattern of dose-related adverse events. Plasma exposure increased with dose escalation, but linear pharmacokinetics were not observed over the studied doses. L-threonate was absorbed rapidly, and its absorption was enhanced by food intake. No systemic accumulation appeared after repeated administrations.

Wang HY, Hu P, Jiang J
Acta Pharmacol. Sin. Dec 2011
PMID: 21986570 | Free Full Text

The introduction is the most interesting part of the article.

L-Threonic acid is an active metabolite of vitamin C5, 6, 7, 8. It has been reported that L-threonic acid exhibits significant stimulatory action on vitamin C uptake and prolongs the retention of vitamin C in human T-lymphoma cells9, 10. It is also well known that vitamin C is a marker for osteoblast formation and has been shown to stimulate procollagen and enhance collagen synthesis11, 12, 13, 14. Therefore, L-threonic acid may play a role in the mineralization process through its positive action on vitamin C. This hypothesis was confirmed in 1999 by Rowe DJ15. It was reported that in vitro treatment with ascorbate-containing vitamin C metabolites enhanced the formation of the mineralized nodules and collagenous proteins and that L-threonate was one of the metabolites that was found to influence the mineralization process15. Recently, a preclinical study was performed to investigate the effect of L-threonate on bone resorption of rabbit osteoclasts16. This study contained a total of six culture groups, including one control group and five groups treated with drugs (calcium L-threonate, sodium L-threonate, alendronate, 17β-estradiol and calcium gluconate). The levels of type I collagen C-telopeptide (CTx) and bone slice resorptive area were measured. This study found that L-threonate, especially calcium L-threonate, inhibited the bone resorption of osteoclasts in vitro; however, the reductive effects on the CTx level and resorptive area were not as significant as alendronate and 17β-estradiol at the same concentration.

Calcium L-threonate ((2R,3S)-2,3,4-trihydroxy butyric acid calcium) (Figure 1) is a novel drug developed for the treatment of osteoporosis and as a calcium supplement. Phase I clinical trials of calcium L-threonate, including tolerance, pharmacokinetics and calcium absorption evaluation, were performed in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. In this paper, the pharmacokinetics of L-threonate after single or multiple oral administrations and its safety profile in healthy Chinese volunteers are presented.

Calcium Threonate in Ester-C Enhances Vitamin C’s Bone Mineralization In Vitro


Enhanced production of mineralized nodules and collagenous proteins in vitro by calcium ascorbate supplemented with vitamin C metabolites.

Vitamin C or ascorbate is important in wound healing due to its essential role in collagen synthesis. To study wound healing in the periodontium, cells adherent to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) augmentation membranes, recovered from edentulous ridge augmentation procedures, have been established in culture in our laboratories. The objective of this study was to determine whether treatment of these cells with a calcium ascorbate, which contains vitamin C metabolites (metabolite-supplemented ascorbate), would increase the production of collagenous protein and mineralized tissue in vitro, as compared to unsupplemented calcium ascorbate (ascorbate).
Cells derived from ePTFE membranes were cultured with beta-glycerophosphate and the test agents for 2 to 5 weeks, and the surface areas of the cell cultures occupied by mineralized nodules were measured using computerized image analysis. One experiment tested the effects of calcium threonate, one of the vitamin C metabolites in metabolite-supplemented ascorbate. Incorporation of radioactive proline and glycine was used as a measure of total protein (radioactivity precipitated by trichloracetic acid) and collagenase-digestible protein (radioactivity released by collagenase digestion.) Co-localization of collagen and fibronectin was examined by immunofluorescence.
In vitro treatment of these cells with metabolite-supplemented ascorbate increased the area of the cell cultures occupied by mineralized nodules after 5 weeks. Cell cultures treated with metabolite-supplemented ascorbate also exhibited significant increases in total protein. The increase in collagenous proteins in these cultures accounted for 85% of the increase in total protein. The greatest difference between treatment groups was observed in the cell-associated fraction containing the extracellular matrix. The additional collagen exhibited normal co-distribution with fibronectin. In cultures treated with ascorbate spiked with calcium threonate, the area of mineralized tissue was significantly greater than in ascorbate-treated cultures, but was less than that observed in cultures treated with metabolite-supplemented ascorbate.
In vitro treatment with ascorbate containing vitamin C metabolites enhanced the formation of mineralized nodules and collagenous proteins. Calcium threonate may be one of the metabolites influencing the mineralization process. Identifying factors which facilitate the formation of mineralized tissue has significant clinical ramifications in terms of wound healing and bone regeneration.

Rowe DJ, Ko S, Tom XM, Silverstein SJ…
J. Periodontol. Sep 1999
PMID: 10505801

This study is on Ester-C. Ester-C, PureWay-C, and AlphaSorb-C are Vitamin C products that contain Calcium-L-Threonate. Biocalth is Calcium product which is all Calcium-L-Threonate without Vitamin C.


L-Threonate Inhibits Resorption In Vitro


[Effects of L-threonate on bone resorption by osteoclasts in vitro].

To clarify if calcium L-threonate and sodium L-threonate have inhibitory effects on the bone resorption of rabbit’s osteoclasts in vitro.
This study contained a total of 16 culture groups, including one group as control and 5 groups treated by 5 drugs (calcium D-threonate, sodium L-threonate, alendronate, 17beta-estradiol and calcium gluconate) each at the final concentrations of 10(-9) mol/L, 10(-7) mol/L, 10(-5) mol/L respectively. After 7 days, eight bone slices of every group were stained with toluidine blue and the areas of resorptive pits were analyzed under light microscope; the concentrations of C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx or Crosslaps) in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA.
(1) The resorption area and the CTx concentration of the Calcium L-threonate groups were reduced significantly as compared with those of control and of Calcium gluconate groups respectively. The resorption area and CTx level of the Sodium L-threonate groups were significantly reduced when compared with those of the control, but the effects of Calcium gluconate groups were not so. (2) The reduction in the resorption area and CTx concentration of Calcium L-threonate group was more than that of Sodium L-threonate group. (3) The reductive effect of the high concentration (10(-5)) group of Calcium L-threonate on the area and CTx level was corresponding to that of 17beta-estradiol at a concentration between 10(-7) and 10(-9). (4) The resorption area was related to the CTx concentration (r=0.876). (5) The CTX level was much more sensitive, precise and stable than the concentration.
L-threonate, especially calcium L-threonate could inhibit the bone resorption of osteoclasts in vitro, and its effect might be related to the radical of L-threonic acid. The CTx concentration in culture supernatants might be an effective marker quantitatively reflecting the bone resorption by osteoclasts in vitro.

He JH, Tong NW, Li HQ, Wu J
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban Mar 2005
PMID: 15807273