α-Tocotrienol inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption by suppressing RANKL expression and signaling and bone resorbing activity.
Vitamin E, an essential nutrient with powerful antioxidant activity, is the mixture of two classes of compounds, tocopherols (TPs) and tocotrienols (TTs). Although TTs exhibit better bone protective activity than α-TP, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether α-TT and α-TP can modulate osteoclastic bone resorption. We found that α-TT but not α-TP inhibits osteoclastogenesis in coculture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells induced by either IL-1 or combined treatment with 1α,25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) and prostaglandin E(2). In accordance with this, only α-TT inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts. In addition, α-TT but not α-TP inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from precursors by suppression of c-Fos expression, possibly through inhibiting ERK and NF-κB activation. This anti-osteoclastogenic effect was reversed when c-Fos or an active form of NFATc1, a critical downstream of c-Fos during osteoclastogenesis, was overexpressed. Furthermore, only α-TT reduced bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts without affecting their survival. Overall, our results demonstrate that α-TT but not α-TP has anti-bone resorptive properties by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activation, suggesting that α-TT may have therapeutic value for treating and preventing bone diseases characterized by excessive bone destruction.
Ha H, Lee JH, Kim HN, Lee ZH
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Mar 2011