Greater Skeletal Gains in Ovary Intact Rats at Maturity Are Achieved by Supplementing a Standardized Extract of Butea monosperma Stem Bark that Confers Better Bone Conserving Effect following Ovariectomy and Concurrent Treatment Withdrawal.
With a longitudinally designed study, we tested whether an acetone soluble fraction (ASF) from the stem bark of Butea monosperma resulted in maximizing bone gain in rats during growth and maturation and thus protected against osteopenia following ovariectomy (OVx) with concomitant treatment withdrawal. Female rats at weaning were given ASF (100 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 12 weeks, and baseline skeletal parameters (micro-CT) and total plasma antioxidant status (TAS) were measured. At this stage, one group was OVx and the other group was sham operated. Vehicle group (untreated) after OVx was given E2 or continued with vehicle (OVx control). ASF group after OVx was given vehicle (ASF withdrawn, ASFW). After another 12 weeks, all groups were killed and various skeletal parameters were determined. ASF resulted in substantially better skeletal parameters and higher plasma TAS over control at maturity. Rats treated with ASF before OVx had reduced rates of bone loss compared to OVx control. Twelve weeks after OVx, the ASFW group exhibited better trabecular microarchitectural preservation, bone turnover profiles, increased cortical deposition, and biomechanical strength over the OVx control, and the effects were comparable to OVx + E2 group. ASF supplementation during skeletal growth could maximize bone accrual and could confer increased resistance to post-OVx osteopenia despite treatment withdrawal.
O-methoxy substitutions of free phenolic hydroxyl groups of the most abundant soy isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) enhance the lipophilicity, metabolic stability, and uterine safety, thus improving pharmacokinetic/metabolic stability profiles of genistein and daidzein and, consequently, enhance the pharmacodynamic effect (in vivo potency) [12, 13]. In our phytopharmacological evaluation program, aimed at discovering effective alternative strategy for reducing the risk of developing postmenopausal osteopenia, we showed that a standardized fraction (an acetone soluble fraction, ASF) made from the stem bark of Butea monosperma contained four methoxyisoflavones: cajanin (7-methoxy genistein), medicarpin (a methoxypterocarpan with cyclized genistein ring structure), isoformononetin (7-methoxy daidzein), and cladrin (3′4,-dimethoxy daidzein) at percent concentration of 0.061, 0.019, 0.007, and 0.003, respectively . Each one of these, when administered to female rats for four weeks after weaning resulted in increased BMD, bone strength, and bone formation rate with varying efficacy. In vitro, all four compounds stimulated osteoblast function more potently than genistein and daidzein by different modes of action [15–17]. These observations prompted us to hypothesize that the presence of these methoxyisoflavones in the ASF could synergistically augment peak bone mass accrual in female rats at maturity that will confer a superior bone conserving ability after surgical menopause (due to ovariectomy, OVx) even as the treatment is withdrawn.