Fish Oil Reduces Resorption in Rats with Periodontal Disease

Abstract

Omega-3 fatty acid effect on alveolar bone loss in rats.

Gingival inflammation and alveolar bone resorption are hallmarks of adult periodontitis, elicited in response to oral micro-organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. We hypothesized that omega (omega)-3 fatty acids (FA) dietary supplementation would modulate inflammatory reactions leading to periodontal disease in infected rats. Rats were fed fish oil (omega-3 FA) or corn oil (n-6 FA) diets for 22 weeks and were infected with P. gingivalis. Rats on the omega-3 FA diet exhibited elevated serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), documenting diet-induced changes. PCR analyses demonstrated that rats were orally colonized by P. gingivalis; increased IgG antibody levels substantiated this infection. P. gingivalis-infected rats treated with omega-3 FA had significantly less alveolar bone resorption. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of an omega-3 FA-supplemented diet in modulating alveolar bone resorption following P. gingivalis infection, and supported that omega-3 FA may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of periodontal disease.

Kesavalu L, Vasudevan B, Raghu B, Browning E…
J. Dent. Res. Jul 2006
PMID: 16798867

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