Category Archives: PQQ

PQQ Inhibits Osteoclasts


Inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation by pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ).

The effect of pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation was examined using RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. RANKL led to the formation of osteoclasts identified as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in the culture of RAW 264.7 cells. However, PQQ inhibited the appearance of osteoclasts and prevented the decrease of F4/80 macrophage maturation marker on RANKL-stimulated cells, suggesting a preventive action of PQQ on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. PQQ inhibited the activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1), a key transcription factor of osteoclastogenesis, in RANKL-stimulated cells. On the other hand, PQQ did not inhibit the signaling pathway from RANK/RANKL binding to NFATc1 activation, including NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). PQQ augmented the expression of type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) and enhanced the IFN-β-mediated janus kinase (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1) expression. Moreover, PQQ reduced the expression level of c-Fos leading to the activation of NFATc1. Taken together, PQQ was suggested to prevent RANKL-induced osteoclast formation via the inactivation of NFATc1 by reduced c-Fos expression. The reduced c-Fos expression might be mediated by the enhanced IFN-β signaling due to augmented IFNAR expression.

Odkhuu E, Koide N, Haque A, Tsolmongyn B…
Immunol. Lett. Feb 2012
PMID: 22193059

Review: PQQ Involved with Nitric Oxide in Bones?


Is the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory putative new vitamin, PQQ, involved with nitric oxide in bone metabolism?

Our laboratory recently isolated free PQQ (2,7,9-tricarboxy-pyrroloquinoline quinone, methoxatin), a bacterial redox cofactor, from red cells, neutrophils, serum and milk and found free PQQ in CSF, synovial fluid and bile. The metabolism and functions of PQQ and ascorbate may be coupled. Physiologically, free PQQ catalyzes dioxygen-superoxide interconversion, and participates in both superoxide generation (respiratory burst) and scavenging (cell protection). Using a labeled aromatic o-diamine, superoxide formation by activated neutrophils was inhibited and the labeled phenazine adduct of PQQ could be isolated from the inhibited cells (Karnovsky et al., 1992). PQQ may convert xanthine oxidase to xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and could be the physiological coenzyme of XD. PQQ plus copper, form a potent amine-oxidizing system. Shah et al., 1992 found that PQQ-Cu2+ catalyzes the oxidation of epsilon-amino groups in collagen and elastin. Rucker’s lab (Smidt et al., 1991) has found that PQQ may be a vitamin for mouse pups. Watanabe et al., 1988 and Nishigori et al., 1989, showed that injected PQQ protects animals against oxidative stress injury. PQQ’s in vivo antioxidant action, spares reduced glutathione. PQQ, as an actively transported organic anion, concentrates in cells. In other experiments (Aizenman et al., 1992), PQQ protected neurons against the neurotoxin action of the glutamate-receptor against NMDA. We shall consider possible roles for PQQ in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO, endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF) from L-arginine and in NO removal by superoxide. NO has now been linked to the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption.

Gallop PM, Paz MA, Flückiger R, Henson E
Connect. Tissue Res. 1993
PMID: 8403896