Tag Archives: positive

Gastrodin Inhibits Osteoclasts Multiple Ways and Stimulates Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro


Gastrodin inhibits osteoclastogenesis via down-regulating the NFATc1 signaling pathway and stimulates osseointegration in vitro.

Bone is a rigid yet dynamic organ, and this dynamism is mediated by the delicate balance between osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. However, excessive activation of osteoclasts is responsible for many bone diseases such as osteoporosis, Paget disease, and tumor bone metastasis. Agents that could inhibit osteoclast formation or function are regarded as promising alternatives to treat osteoclast-related diseases. Recently, traditional Chinese medicine has attracted attention because of its multiple activities in bone metabolism. Among them, gastrodin has been reported as an anti-osteoporosis agent that reduces reactive oxygen species. However, the direct action of gastrodin on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, and its underlying molecular mechanism, remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of gastrodin on receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-activated osteoclasts formation and bone resorption. Our results showed that gastrodin retarded RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation efficiently by downregulating transcriptional and translational expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cl (NFATc1), a major factor in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Meanwhile, gastrodin prevented osteoclast maturation and migration by inhibiting the gene expression of dendrocyte expressed seven transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), an osteoclastic-specific gene that controls cells fusion and movement. And gastrodin prevented RANKL-induced osteoclastic bone erosion in vitro. In addition, gastrodin also stimulated bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) spreading and osseointegration in titanium plate. In summary, gastrodin could prevent osteoclasts formation and bone resorption via blockage of NFATc1 activity, and stimulate osseointegration in vitro. Gastrodin could be developed as a potent phytochemical candidate to treat osteolytic diseases.

Zhou F, Shen Y, Liu B, Chen X…
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Mar 2017
PMID: 28161640

SIRT1 May Grow Bone by Downregulating PPAR Gamma


Sirtuin1 promotes osteogenic differentiation through downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in MC3T3-E1 cells.

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by bone loss, resulting in architectural deterioration of the skeleton, decreased bone strength and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Strengthening osteogenesis is an effective way to relieve osteoporosis. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase, which is reported to be involved in improving osteogenesis. Sirt1 targets peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in the regulation of adipose tissues; however, the molecular mechanism of Sirt1 in osteogenic differentiation is still unknown. PPARγ tends to induce more adipogenic differentiation rather than osteogenic differentiation. Hence, we hypothesized that Sirt1 facilitates osteogenic differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ signaling. Mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured under osteogenic medium. Sirt1 was overexpressed through plasmid transfection. The results showed that high expression of Sirt1 was associated with increased osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis of osteogenic markers, and Von Kossa staining. Sirt1 overexpression also directly and negatively regulated the expression of PPARγ and its downstream molecules. Use of the PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone, reversed the effects of Sirt1 on osteogenic differentiation. Using constructed luciferase plasmids, we demonstrated a role of Sirt1 in inhibiting PPARγ-induced activity and expression of adipocyte-specific genes, including acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (Acc) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4). The interaction between Sirt1 and PPARγ was further confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for Sirt1 in osteogenic differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ activity. These findings suggest that the Sirt1-PPARγ pathway may represent a potential target for enhancement of osteogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis.

Qu B, Ma Y, Yan M, Gong K…
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Sep 2016
PMID: 27378422

CoQ10 Increases Osteoblasts and Decreases Resorption in Rats


Coenzyme Q10 promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation and protects against ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a fat‑soluble vitamin‑like substance used for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including osteoporosis. The exact mechanism underlying CoQ10‑mediated protection against osteoporosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 on osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation, and therapeutic effects on a rat model of osteoporosis. Following treatment with different concentrations of CoQ10, cell proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), and expression of osteoblastogenic markers, were measured. Rats with osteoporosis subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) were treated with different concentrations of CoQ10. Serum levels of estrogen and bone metabolism markers were measured. Micro computed tomography scans were used to analyze morphological changes in bones. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5‑trisphosphate 3‑phosphatase and dual‑specificity protein phosphatase PTEN (PTEN)/phosphatidylinositol 4,5‑bisphosphate 3‑kinase (PI3K)/RAC‑alpha serine/threonine‑protein kinase(AKT), were determined. CoQ10 significantly increased the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in a dose‑dependent manner, with an increased expression of osteogenic markers. CoQ10 significantly decreased bone resorption but exhibited no effect on serum E2 levels in vivo. CoQ10 markedly enhanced bone formation. Furthermore, the abundance of p‑PI3K and p‑AKT increased while PTEN levels decreased in a dose‑dependent manner following administration of CoQ10. CoQ10 stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs and is effective for the treatment of OVX‑induced osteoporosis in rats. The above effects of CoQ10 may be mediated by activation of the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.

Zheng D, Cui C, Yu M, Li X…
Mol Med Rep Oct 2017
PMID: 29115467

PQQ Stimulates Osteoblastic Bone Formation in Testosterone-Deficient Mice


Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents testosterone deficiency-induced osteoporosis by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption.

Accumulating evidences suggest that oxidative stress caused and deteriorated the aging related osteoporosis and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a powerful antioxidant. However, it is unclear whether PQQ can prevent testosterone deficiency-induced osteoporosis. In this study, the orchidectomized (ORX) mice were supplemented in diet with/without PQQ for 48 weeks, and compared with each other and with sham mice. Results showed that bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, collagen deposition and osteoblast number were decreased significantly in ORX mice compared with shame mice, whereas PQQ supplementation largely prevented these alterations. In contrast, osteoclast surface and ratio of RANKL and OPG mRNA relative expression levels were increased significantly in ORX mice compared with shame mice, but were decreased significantly by PQQ supplementation. Furthermore, we found that CFU-f and ALP positive CFU-f forming efficiency and the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells were reduced significantly in ORX mice compared with shame mice, but were increased significantly by PQQ supplementation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in thymus were increased, antioxidant enzymes SOD-1, SOD-2, Prdx I and Prdx IV protein expression levels in bony tissue were down-regulated, whereas the protein expression levels of DNA damage response related molecules including γ-H2AX, p53, Chk2 and NFκB-p65 in bony tissue were up-regulated significantly in ORX mice compared with shame mice, whereas PQQ supplementation largely rescued these alterations observed in ORX mice. Our results indicate that PQQ supplementation can prevent testosterone deficiency-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and DNA damage, stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption.

Wu X, Li J, Zhang H, Wang H…
Am J Transl Res 2017
PMID: 28386349 | Free Full Text

PQQ Increases Osteoblasts in Bmi-1 Knockout Mice


Effect and mechanism of pyrroloquinoline quinone on anti-osteoporosis in Bmi-1 knockout mice-Anti-oxidant effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), considered as an ROS scavenger,could protect mitochondrial activity from damage of oxidative stress. To determine the role of PQQ supplement in rescuing long bone osteoporosis in Bmi-1(-/-) mice. We fed Bmi-1 knockout mice a diet supplemented with PQQ (BKO+PQQ), BKO mice with normal diet (BKO) and wild type mice with normal diet (WT) as controls. We compared the differences of skeletal phenotype by means of imaging, histopathological and molecular biology methods in three groups of animals. Results showed that BKO+PQQ mice increased morphology of tibia, decreased X-ray transmittance, and increased bone density, thickness of cortical bone, width of growth plate and trabecular bone mass compared with BKO mice. Our study also investigated that, compared mice BKO, PCNA positive cells percentage of tibial growth plate areas significantly increased in BKO+PQQ mice, and TUNEL positive cells percentage was significantly decreased. To detect the effect of PQQ on osteoblast formation of tibiae. Our results showed, compared with BKO mice, osteogenic cell, osteoblast number areas, ALP, Col I and OCN positive areas significantly increased in tibia of BKO+PQQ mice. Further studies showed that supplemental PQQ played a role in anti-osteoporosis by up-regulating antioxidant capacity, inhibiting oxidative stress and reducing DNA damage, down-regulating CDKI proteins levels, and decreasing cell apoptosis. This study not only reveals the mechanism of PQQ supplementation in anti-osteoporosis, but also provides the experimental and theoretical basis for the clinical application of PQQ in osteoporosis.

Huang Y, Chen N, Miao D
Am J Transl Res 2017
PMID: 29118900 | Free Full Text

Hesperidin Increases Calcium Retention 5.5% in Postmenopausal Women


Effect of Hesperidin With and Without a Calcium (Calcilock) Supplement on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women.

Citrus fruits contain unique flavanones. One of the most abundant of the flavanones, hesperidin, has been shown to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats.
The objective of the study was to measure the effect of hesperidin with or without calcium supplementation on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized-order crossover design of 500 g hesperidin with or without 500 mg calcium supplement in 12 healthy postmenopausal women. Bone calcium retention was determined from urinary excretion of the rare isotope, (41)Ca, from bone. Calcium plus hesperidin, but not hesperidin alone, improved bone calcium retention by 5.5% (P < .04). Calcium supplementation (Calcilock), in combination with hesperidin, is effective at preserving bone in postmenopausal women.

Martin BR, McCabe GP, McCabe L, Jackson GS…
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Mar 2016
PMID: 26751193

Hesperidin Improves Bone in Insulin-Treated Diabetic Rats


The ability of hesperidin compared to that of insulin for preventing osteoporosis induced by type I diabetes in young male albino rats: A histological and biochemical study.

Patients with type I diabetes are at increased risk of osteoporosis even after insulin therapy in adult stage. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of hesperidin (hesp) therapy versus that of insulin alone in the alleviation of osteoporosis arising from type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in young rats.
Hesperidin was administered orally to STZ-induced diabetes. The animals were evaluated morphologically and biochemically and compared with that received daily SC injections of long-acting insulin.
Histologically, we observed the degeneration of osteoblasts and osteocytes, decreased collagen fibers, and disturbed bone turn over markers in untreated DM rats. Hesperidin+ insulin supplementation to diabetic rats caused significant improvement of most of the bone histological and morphometric parameters compared with the insulin-treated group. Furthermore, hesp treatment significantly reduced pro-inflammatory mediators TNFα and NF-κB and increased serum biochemical markers of bone turnover, including osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC) and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
These data demonstrated that hesp could be considered to be a beneficial drug for preventing diabetic osteoporosis in growing age.

Shehata AS, Amer MG, Abd El-Haleem MR, Karam RA
Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. Apr 2017
PMID: 28132802

Calcium-Collagen Chelate Reduces Sclerostin in Women


A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5 g of CC containing 500 mg of elemental calcium and 200 IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500 mg of calcium and 200 IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

Elam ML, Johnson SA, Hooshmand S, Feresin RG…
J Med Food Mar 2015
PMID: 25314004

SIRT1 Represses Sclerostin in Mice and may be Anabolic for Bone


Sirt1 is a regulator of bone mass and a repressor of Sost encoding for sclerostin, a bone formation inhibitor.

Sirt1, the mammalian ortholog of the yeast Sir2 (silent information regulator 2), was shown to play an important role in metabolism and in age-associated diseases, but its role in skeletal homeostasis and osteoporosis has yet not been studied. Using 129/Sv mice with a germline mutation in the Sirt1 gene, we demonstrate that Sirt1 haplo-insufficient (Sirt1(+/-)) female mice exhibit a significant reduction in bone mass characterized by decreased bone formation and increased marrow adipogenesis. Importantly, we identify Sost, encoding for sclerostin, a critical inhibitor of bone formation, as a novel target of Sirt1. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we reveal that Sirt1 directly and negatively regulates Sost gene expression by deacetylating histone 3 at lysine 9 at the Sost promoter. Sost down-regulation by small interfering RNA and the administration of a sclerostin-neutralizing antibody restore gene expression of osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein as well as mineralized nodule formation in Sirt1(+/-) marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced to osteogenesis. These findings reveal a novel role for Sirt1 in bone as a regulator of bone mass and a repressor of sclerostin, and have potential implications suggesting that Sirt1 is a target for promoting bone formation as an anabolic approach for treatment of osteoporosis.

Cohen-Kfir E, Artsi H, Levin A, Abramowitz E…
Endocrinology Dec 2011
PMID: 21952235

Resveratrol and SIRT1 Reduces Sclerostin Expression In-Vitro


Low sirtuin 1 levels in human osteoarthritis subchondral osteoblasts lead to abnormal sclerostin expression which decreases Wnt/β-catenin activity.

Wnt/β-catenin (cWnt) signaling plays a key role in osteogenesis by promoting the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts, activities altered in human osteoarthritic subchondral osteoblast (OA Ob). Sclerostin (SOST) has been shown to alter cWnt signaling. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) acts as a novel bone regulator and represses SOST levels in Ob. However the role of SIRT1 and SOST in OA Ob remains unknown. Herein, we explored the role played by SIRT1 and SOST on the abnormal mineralization and cWnt signaling in OA Ob.
Primary human normal and OA Ob were prepared from tibial plateaus. SOST levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, the expression and production of genes by qRT-PCR and WB analysis. Their inhibitions were performed using siRNA. cWnt signaling was measured by the TOPflash TCF/lef luciferase reporter assay. Mineralization was determined by alizarin red staining.
SOST levels were significantly increased in OA Ob compared to normal and were linked with elevated TGF-β1 levels in these cells. SIRT1 expression was significantly reduced in OA Ob compared to normal yet not modified by TGF-β1. Specific inhibition of SIRT1 increased TGF-β1 and SOST expressions in OA Ob, while stimulating SIRT1 activity with β-Nicotinamide mononucleotide reduced the expression of TGF-β1 and SOST, and increased mineralization in OA Ob. Resveratrol also reduced SOST expression in OA Ob. Reduced cWnt signaling, β-catenin levels, and mineralization in OA Ob were all corrected via reducing SOST expression.
These data indicate that high level of SOST is responsible, in part, for the reduced cWnt and mineralization of human OA Ob, which in turn is linked with abnormal SIRT1 levels in these pathological cells.

Abed É, Couchourel D, Delalandre A, Duval N…
Bone Feb 2014
PMID: 24184155