Vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in women and men.
Low dietary vitamin K intake has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in men and women. Few data exist on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and bone mineral density (BMD).
We studied cross-sectional associations between self-reported dietary vitamin K intake and BMD of the hip and spine in men and women aged 29-86 y.
BMD was measured at the hip and spine in 1112 men and 1479 women (macro x +/- SD age: 59 +/- 9 y) who participated in the Framingham Heart Study (1996-2000). Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin K were assessed with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Additional covariates included age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity score, and menopause status and current estrogen use among the women.
Women in the lowest quartile of vitamin K intake (macro x: 70.2 microg/d) had significantly (P < or = 0.005) lower mean (+/- SEM) BMD at the femoral neck (0.854 +/- 0.006 g/cm(2)) and spine (1.140 +/- 0.010 g/cm(2)) than did those in the highest quartile of vitamin K intake (macro x: 309 microg/d): 0.888 +/- 0.006 and 1.190 +/- 0.010 g/cm(2), respectively. These associations remained after potential confounders were controlled for and after stratification by age or supplement use. No significant association was found between dietary vitamin K intake and BMD in men.
Low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low BMD in women, consistent with previous reports that low dietary vitamin K intake is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. In contrast, there was no association between dietary vitamin K intake and BMD in men.