Inhibition of IL-1beta and IL-6 in osteoblast-like cell by isoflavones extracted from Sophorae fructus.
Osteoporosis is recognized as one of the major hormonal deficiency diseases, especially in menopausal women and the elderly. When estrogen is reduced in the body, local factors such as IL-1beta and IL-6, which are known to be related with bone resorption, are increased and promote osteoclastogenesis, which is responsible for bone resorption. In the present study, we investigated whether glucosidic isoflavones (Isocal, PIII) extracted from Sophorae fructus affect the proliferation of osteoblasts and prevent osteoclastogenesis in vitro by attenuating upstream cytokines such as IL-1beta and IL-6 in a human osteoblastic cell line (MG-63) and in a primary osteoblastic culture from SD rat femurs. Interestingly, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA were significantly suppressed in osteoblast-like cells treated with 17beta-estradiol (E2) and PIII when compared to positive control (SDB), and this suppression was more effective at 10(-8)% than at the highest concentration of 10(-4)%. In addition, these were confirmed in protein levels using ELISA assay. In the cell line, the cells showed that E2 was the most effective in osteoblastic proliferation over the whole range of concentration (10(-4)%-10(-12)%), even though PIII also showed the second greatest effectiveness at 10(-8)%. Nitric oxide (NO) was significantly (p<0.05) upregulated in PIII and E2 over the concentration range 10(-6)% to 10(-8)% when compared to SDB, without showing any dose dependency. In bone marrow primary culture, we found by TRAP assay that PIII effectively suppressed osteoclastogenesis next to E2 in comparison with SDB and culture media (control). In conclusion, these results suggest that local bone-resorbing cytokines can be regulated by PIII at lower concentrations and that, therefore, PIII may preferentially induce anti-osteoporosis response by attenuating osteoclastic differentiation and by upregulating NO.
Joo SS, Kang HC, Lee MW, Choi YW…
Arch. Pharm. Res. Dec 2003
Isoflavones extracted from Sophorae fructus upregulate IGF-I and TGF-beta and inhibit osteoclastogenesis in rat bone marrow cells.
Isoflavones have been a central subject in research on the natural phytoestrogens found in Leguminosae. Their effects on bone formation and remodeling are important in that they can act like estrogen by binding on estrogen receptors on the target cell surface. We, therefore, believed that isoflavones may help in the treatment of patients with estrogen deficiency disease such as estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for osteoporosis. As commonly known, osteoporosis is one of the hormonal deficiency diseases, especially in menopausal women. When estrogen is no longer produced in the body a remarkable bone remodeling process occurs, and the associated events are regulated by growth factors in the osteoblast lineage. In the present study, we investigated whether isoflavones (Isocal) extracted from Sophorae fructus affect the growth factors IGF-I and TGF-beta that have been known to be related with bone formation. In the study, we found that the active control (PIII) effectively enhanced the level of nitric oxide (NO) and growth factors, and thereby inhibited osteoclastogenesis. The most efficient concentration was 10(-8)% within five days, whereas the comparative control (soybean isoflavone) was not as effective even at a lower concentration. In conclusion, the products which contain enriched glucosidic isoflavone and nutrient supplements such as shark cartilage and calcium can be used for osteoporosis therapy by enhancing the production of IGF-I and TGF-beta. Furthermore, the NO produced through endothelial constitutive NO synthase (ecNOS) may play a role in inhibiting bone reabsorption.
Joo SS, Won TJ, Kang HC, Lee DI
Arch. Pharm. Res. Jan 2004
Bone loss preventing effect of Sophorae Fructus on ovariectomized rats.
The preventive effects of Sophorae Fructus extracts (I: hot water extract and II: combination product using I) on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats were investigated. Sophorae Fructus extracts were orally administrated to OVX rats for 9 weeks. Ovariectomy caused the increase of body weight and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd: bone resorption marker) and decrease of calcium (Ca: bone formation marker) level in serum. Dpd level were significantly decreased and Ca levels were elevated at 9 weeks in Sophorae Fructus extracts administered groups after ovariectomy at a dose of 0.556 g/kg/day compared with control group. In administered groups, trabecular bone area (TBA) in the tibia and lumbar were also increased compared with control group in histomorphological analysis. The preventive or treatment effects of Sophorae Fructus extracts on bone loss in OVX rats appears to be due to suppression of bone turnover.
Shim JG, Yeom SH, Kim HJ, Choi YW…
Arch. Pharm. Res. Jan 2005