Regulatory mechanism of food factors in bone metabolism and prevention of osteoporosis.
Aging induces a decrease in bone mass, and osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Bone loss with increasing age may be due to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. Pharmacologic and nutritional factors may prevent bone loss with aging, although chemical compounds in food and plants which act on bone metabolism are poorly understood. We have found that isoflavones (including genistein and daidzein), which are contained in soybeans, have a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption, thereby increasing bone mass. Menaquinone-7, an analogue of vitamin K(2) which is abundant in fermented soybeans, has been demonstrated to stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. Of various carotenoids, beta-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unchiu MARC), has a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption. The supplementation of these factors has a preventive effect on bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats, which are an animal model of osteoporosis, and their intake has been shown to have a stimulatory effect on bone mass in humans. Factors with an anabolic effect on bone metabolism were found in extracts obtained from wasabi leafstalk (Wasabi japonica MATSUM), the marine alga Sargassum horneri, and bee pollen Cistus ladaniferus. Phytocomponent p-hydroxycinnamic acid was also found to have an anabolic effect on bone metabolism. Food chemical factors thus play a role in bone health and may be important in the prevention of bone loss with increasing age.
Influence of a low dose of dietary soybean on bone properties and mineral status in young rats.
The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of dietary supplementation with genistein, daidzein stachyose, and raw or cooked soybean on mineral content, optical density, and mechanical properties of bones in growing rats. The experiment was performed on 70 male young Wistar rats (4 weeks old at the start of the experiment) divided into seven groups. Genistein, daidzein, or stachyose were administered by gavage. Raw or cooked soybean was added directly to the diet (1%) The experiment lasted 28 days. Femurs were removed postmortem and kept until analysis at -20°C. Mineral content in bones was determined by atomic absorption flame spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Optical density was analyzed with a KODAK 1D 3.5 system. Mechanical properties were tested using INSTRON 4301 equipment. Genistein increased mineral content in bones of growing rats. Biological action of genistein and daidzein on the mineralization of bone tissues in growing rats was different. Addition of stachyose (1.9 mg/day/rat) did not affect bone tissues, nor did the addition of raw or cooked soybean. None of the studied biologically active substances: genistein (0.26 mg/day/rat), daidzein (0.104 mg/day/rat), stachyose (1.9 mg/day/rat), or soybean had an effect on bone optical density.
Isoflavone metabolism and bone-sparing effects of daidzein-metabolites.
Several dietary phytochemicals exhibit anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoporotic activities relevant to prevention of chronic diseases, including lifestyle-related diseases. Soybean isoflavones are similar in structure to estrogen and have received considerable attention as potential alternatives to hormone replacement therapy. Daidzein, a major isoflavone found in soybean, is metabolized to equol by intestinal microflora; this metabolite exhibits stronger estrogenic activity than daidzein. Recent studies suggest that the clinical effectiveness of isoflavones might be due to their ability to produce equol in the gut. This review focused on the metabolic pathway of equol and possible bioactivities of equol and O-desmethylangolensin, another metabolite of daidzein, with regard to bone metabolism and the status of intestinal microflora. Furthermore, we considered risk-benefit analyses of isoflavones and their metabolites.
Daidzein together with high calcium preserve bone mass and biomechanical strength at multiple sites in ovariectomized mice.
As the prevalence of osteoporosis is increasing, and the adverse effects of hormone replacement therapy are evident, women are searching for natural alternatives such as soy isoflavones to help prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. Daidzein is one of the most abundant isoflavones present in soy and it is unique as it can be further metabolized to equol, a compound with greater estrogenic activity than other isoflavones. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of purified daidzein in combination with high calcium (Ca) on preserving femur and lumbar vertebrae (LV1-LV4) bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical bone strength at three different sites (femur midpoint, femur neck and LV3) in ovariectomized mice. Sham (SH) mice (n = 12) received control diet (AIN93G) containing 2 g Ca/kg diet and ovariectomized mice were randomized to 1 of 6 groups (n = 12/group): OVX (2 g Ca/kg diet), HCa (25 g Ca/kg diet), HD (2 g Ca + 200 mg daidzein/kg diet), HDCa (25 g Ca + 200 mg daidzein/kg diet), LD (2 g Ca + 100 mg daidzein/kg diet) or LDCa (25 g Ca + 100 mg daidzein/kg diet) for 12 weeks. HDCa preserved femur and vertebrae BMD and biomechanical bone strength (at all three sites) compared to the OVX group, however, only femur yield load (at midpoint) was preserved to a level that was greater (P < 0.05) than HCa alone. Mice fed HD diet had greater (P < 0.05) femur BMD than OVX group, however, daidzein alone (HD) did not appear to preserve trabecular bone (i.e., vertebrae BMD and vertebra peak load). All mice fed daidzein produced equol and there were no uterotrophic effects of daidzein at either dose. Both daidzein and Ca attenuated the increase in serum IL-1beta observed in the OVX group. The results from this study suggest that the combination of daidzein and high Ca favorably affect cortical and trabecular bone as indicated by femur and lumbar vertebrae BMD and biomechanical strength but much of this effect is mediated by the high Ca diet. Further investigation is required to determine optimal dietary levels of daidzein and Ca with the long-term goal of developing a dietary strategy to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis and related fragility fractures.
Investigating the optimal soy protein and isoflavone intakes for women: a perspective.
Traditional soyfoods have been consumed for centuries throughout much of East Asia and, recently, these foods have also become popular in the West. Soyfoods and specific soybean components, such as the protein and isoflavones, have attracted attention for their possible health benefits. Isoflavones are classified as phytoestrogens and have been postulated to be natural alternatives to hormone therapy for menopausal women. To provide guidance on optimal soy intake, this article evaluates Asian soy consumption and both clinical and Asian epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship between soy intake and a variety of health outcomes. On the basis of these data and the standard principles of dietary practice the author suggests that optimal soy protein and isoflavone intakes are 15-20 g/day and 50-90 mg/day, respectively. In addition, an intake of 25 g/day soy protein can be specifically used as the recommendation for cholesterol reduction.
Synergistic effect of isoflavone glycosides and fructooligosaccharides on postgastrectomy osteopenia in rats.
Fructooligosaccharides stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria, which cleave isoflavone glycosides to yield corresponding aglycones, and convert metabolites by enhancing enterohepatic recirculation of isoflavones in rats. In the present study, we determined the synergistic effect of dietary isoflavone glycosides and fructooligosaccharides on postgastrectomy osteopenia in rats. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were gastrectomized (n = 20) or sham operated, (control, n = 5) and then randomly assigned to 5 diet groups: sham-a purified diet control, gastrectomized-control, gastrectomized-isoflavone (0.2% isoflavone glycosides), gastrectomized-fructooligosaccharides (7.5% fructooligosaccharides), and isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides (0.2% isoflavone glycosides + 7.5% fructooligosaccharides). After 6 weeks, the rats were killed and biological samples were collected. In gastrectomized rats, fructooligosaccharides prevented femoral bone fragility, but isoflavone without fructooligosaccharides did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia. Isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides exhibited a synergistic in the distal metaphyseal trabecular bone, indicated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Moreover, fructooligosaccharides increased calcium absorption and equol production from daidzein in gastrectomized rats. These results indicate that isoflavone alone did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia, but the combination of isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides improved the inhibition of trabecular bone loss by increasing calcium absorption and equol production through fructooligosaccharides supplementation.
Modulation of soy isoflavones bioavailability and subsequent effects on bone health in ovariectomized rats: the case for equol.
Soy products are of particular interest because of their potential health benefits in a range of hormonal conditions, such as osteoporosis, due to their high content in phytoestrogens. Because equol, the main metabolite from soy isoflavones, is thought to be powerful, the present study was designated to evaluate the bone-sparing effects of equol by either providing the molecule through the diet or by eliciting its endogenous production by modulating intestinal microflora by short-chain fructooligosaccharides (sc-FOS) or live microbial (Lactobacillus casei) together with daidzein, its precursor.
A comparison with daidzein and genistein was also performed. Rats (3 months old) were ovariectomised (OVX) or sham-operated (SH). Ovariectomised rats were randomly assigned to six experimental diets for 3 months: a control diet (OVX), the control diet supplemented with either genistein (G), or daidzein (D), or equol (E) at the level of 10 microg/g body weight/d. The remaining OVX rats were given daidzein at the dose of 10 mug/g body weight/d, simultaneously with short-chain FOS (Actilight, Beghin-Meiji) (D+FOS) or Lactobacillus casei (Actimel, Danone) (D+L). The SH rats were given the same control diet as OVX.
Genistein, daidzein or equol exhibited a bone sparing effect. Indeed, total femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly enhanced (compared to that of OVX rats), as was the metaphyseal compartment. Bone strength was improved by E consumption, but not by genistein or daidzein given alone. As far as the FOS diet is concerned, the addition of prebiotics significantly raised efficiency of the daidzein protective effect on both femoral BMD and mechanical properties. The effects of lactobacillus were similar, except that the increase in metaphyseal-BMD was not significant.
In conclusion, long-term equol consumption, like genistein and daidzein, in the ovariectomized rat, provides bone sparing effects. Adding indigestible sugars, such as FOS or live microbial as L. casei, in the diet significantly improves daidzein protective effects on the skeleton.
Mathey J, Mardon J, Fokialakis N, Puel C…
Osteoporos Int May 2007 PMID: 17333448
A combination of dietary fructooligosaccharides and isoflavone conjugates increases femoral bone mineral density and equol production in ovariectomized mice.
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, which cleave isoflavone conjugates to yield the corresponding aglycones and metabolites. In a previous study, FOS modified the absorption and enterohepatic recirculation of isoflavones in rats. In the present study, we determined the effect of the combination of dietary FOS and isoflavone conjugates on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) and surgical control mice. After undergoing OVX or sham operation, female ddY mice (8 wk old, n = 64) were randomly assigned to four groups: a purified control diet (AIN-93G) group, a FOS diet (AIN-93G + 5% FOS) group, an isoflavone diet (AIN-93G + 0.2% isoflavone conjugates) group, or a FOS and isoflavone diet (AIN-93G + 5% FOS + 0.2% isoflavone conjugates) group. After 6 wk, the mice were killed and the blood and femora were sampled immediately. In OVX mice, both isoflavone conjugates and FOS prevented femoral bone loss. An additive effect of dietary isoflavone conjugates and FOS was observed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the distal part of the femur and in trabecular bone, by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Moreover, FOS increased cecal beta-glucosidase activity and equol production from daidzein in both OVX and surgical control mice fed isoflavone conjugates. These results suggest that FOS increase the bioavailability of isoflavones, leading to cooperative effects in the prevention of osteopenia in OVX mice.