Differential effects of transforming growth factor-beta on osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse marrow culture: relation to the effect of zinc-chelating dipeptides.
The effect of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse marrow culture in vitro was investigated. The bone marrow cells were cultured for 7 days in alpha-minimal essential medium containing a well-known bone resorbing agent. Osteoclast-like cell formation was estimated with staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), a marker enzyme of osteoclasts. The presence of TGF-beta (10(-13)-10(-11) M) caused a significant increase in the number of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs); the maximum effect was seen with 10(-12) MTGF-beta. With a higher concentration (10(-10) M) of TGF-beta, the growth factor dramatically inhibited the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D5 [1,25(OH)2D3; 10(-8) M]-induced formation of osteoclast-like MNCs. This inhibitory effect was also seen in the formation of osteoclast-like MNCs stimulated by parathyroid hormone (10(-8) M), prostaglandine E2 (10(-6) M), and interleukin-1 alpha (50 U/ml). The stimulatory effect of TGF-beta (10(-12) M) on osteoclast-like MNCs formation was inhibited by zinc sulfate (10(-6) M) or zinc-chelating dipeptide [beta-alanyl-L-histidinato zinc (AHZ), 10(-6) M]. The stimulating effect of TGF-beta was markedly weakened by the presence of EGTA (0.5 mM), a chelator of Ca2+. The inhibitory effect of zinc compounds was not seen in the presence of EGTA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of TGF-beta (10(-10) M), zinc sulfate (10(-6) M), or AHZ (10(-6) M) on osteoclast-like MNCs formation was not demonstrated in mature osteoclastic cells, although calcitonin (3 x 10(-8) M) significantly inhibited the osteoclastic formation. The present study demonstrates that TGF-beta has a stimulating and an inhibiting effect on osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse marrow culture, and that zinc can inhibit the stimulatory effect of TGF-beta.
Yamaguchi M, Kishi S