Effects of palm vitamin e on bone-formation-related gene expression in nicotine-treated rats.
The study determines the effects of palm vitamin E on the gene expression of bone-formation-related genes in nicotine-treated rats. Male rats were divided into three groups: normal saline olive oil (NSO), nicotine olive oil (NO), and nicotine palm vitamin E (NE). The treatment was carried out in 2 phases. During the first 2 months, the NSO group received normal saline while the NO and NE groups received nicotine 7 mg/kg, 6 days a week, intraperitoneally. The following 2 months, normal saline and nicotine administration was stopped and was replaced with oral supplementation of olive oil for the NSO and NO groups and oral supplementation of palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg) for the NE group. Both femurs were harvested to determine the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), Osterix (OSX), and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Nicotine significantly downregulated the gene expression. This effect was reversed by palm vitamin E treatment. In conclusion, palm vitamin E may play a role in osteoblast differentiation and can be considered as an anabolic agent to treat nicotine-induced osteoporosis.
They used “Palm Vitamin E” in this study. Palm typically contains a high amount of Tocotrienols.
Vitamin E is an important fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Of the two types of vitamin E, tocopherol is found in vegetable oils such as soy oil whereas tocotrienol is abundant in palm oil . Previous studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of palm-oil-derived cotrcotrienol in several experimental osteoporosis; ovariectomized rats , steroid-induced rats , ferric-nitrilotriacetate-induced rats , and nicotine-induced rats [11, 12]. Furthermore, recent study has shown that supplementation of palm vitamin E, especially gamma isomer, can improve bone structural and biomechanical properties of normal male rats. Therefore, palm vitamin E has the potential to be used as an anabolic agent .