Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, recent research has clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Further, results of calcium and vitamin D supplementation trials have been inconsistent, suggesting that reliance on this intervention may be inadequate. In addition to dairy, fruit and vegetable intake has emerged as an important modifiable protective factor for bone health. Several nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin K, several B vitamins, and carotenoids, have been shown to be more important than previously realized. Rather than having a negative effect on bone, protein intake appears to benefit bone status, particularly in older adults. Regular intake of cola beverages shows negative effects and moderate alcohol intake shows positive effects on bone, particularly in older women. Current research on diet and bone status supports encouragement of balanced diets with plenty of fruit and vegetables, adequate dairy and other protein foods, and limitation of foods with low nutrient density.
Dietary magnesium supplementation suppresses bone resorption via inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion in rats fed a high-phosphorus diet.
This study examined the effects of dietary magnesium (Mg) supplementation on bone turnover and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in rats fed a high-phosphorus (P) diet. Male rats were randomized by weight into three groups, and fed a control diet (control), a high-P diet (HP) or a high-P and high-Mg diet (HPHMg) for 14 days. Serum osteocalcin levels were significantly higher in the HP and HPHMg groups than in the control group. Serum CTx levels were significantly higher in the HP and HPHMg groups than in the control group, while the levels in the HPHMg group were significantly lower than in the HP group. Serum PTH levels were significantly higher in the HP group than in the control and HPHMg groups. Dietary Mg supplementation had a significant influence on serum PTH levels in the HP and HPHMg groups. These results suggest that dietary Mg supplementation suppresses the high bone resorption induced by a high-P diet via inhibition of PTH secretion. Moreover, our results suggest that dietary Mg supplementation may be beneficial for the prevention of bone loss with high-P diet administration.