Direct inhibition of osteoclast formation and activity by the vitamin E isomer gamma-tocotrienol.
Vitamin E homologues, specifically tocotrienols, have been shown to have favorable effects on bone. They possess properties that are indicative of anti-resorptive activity, suggesting the potential for vitamin E in preventing bone loss. To investigate the anti-resorptive activity of the various vitamin E homologues, we cultured human osteoclasts from blood-derived CD14+ cells on collagen, dentin, and calcium phosphate substrates, with some samples supplemented with vitamin E homologues in their cell culture medium. These were compared to the clinically used bisphosphonate, pamidronate. Compounds were either added at the start of culture to study effects on osteoclast formation, or at the start of osteoclastic resorption to determine their effects on activity. The alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol isomers inhibited osteoclast formation without consequent reduction in total cell number. Only gamma-tocotrienol inhibited osteoclast activity without toxicity. Gamma-tocotrienol was the most potent inhibitor of both osteoclast formation and activity and requires further investigation into its anti-resorptive effects on bone.
Brooks R, Kalia P, Ireland DC, Beeton C…
Int J Vitam Nutr Res Nov 2011
Icariin inhibits the osteoclast formation induced by RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor in mouse bone marrow culture.
Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside contained in the herb Epimedium, which has long been used to improve bone fracture healing or prevent osteoporosis because of the belief that the herb has bone-strengthening action. We have previously demonstrated that icariin enhances the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells, and partially explained the bone-strengthening mechanism of the herb. In the present study, the effect of icariin on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity was investigated in mouse bone marrow culture. It was found that icariin dose-dependently inhibited the growth and differentiation of hemopoietic cells from which osteoclasts were formed. Far less TRAP+ multinuclear cells appeared in the 10 microM icariin group than in the control. The bone resorption pits formed in the 10 microM icariin group was also significantly less than that of the control. RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of TRAP, RANK and CTR was obviously lower than that of the control. It can be concluded that icariin has the ability to inhibit the formation and bone resorption activity of osteoclasts, which suggests that icariin should be the effective component for the bone-strengthening action of herb Epimedium.
Chen KM, Ge BF, Liu XY, Ma PH…
Pharmazie May 2007
Icaritin and its glycosides enhance osteoblastic, but suppress osteoclastic, differentiation and activity in vitro.
Icariin, a principal flavonoid glycoside in Herba Epimedii, is hypothesized to possess beneficial effects on bone mass. Icariin is metabolized to icariside II and then to icaritin in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro effects of icariin, icariside II and icaritin on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. After treatment with these compounds at concentrations 10(-5)-10(-8) mol/l, osteoblasts were examined for proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin secretion and matrix mineralization, as well as expression levels of bone-related proteins. The formation of osteoclasts was assessed by counting the number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells. The activity of isolated rat osteoclasts was evaluated by measuring pit area, actin rings and superoxide generation. Icariside II and icaritin increased the mRNA expression of ALP, OC, COL-1 and OPG, but suppressed that of RANKL. In addition, these compounds reduced the number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells and the osteoclastic resorption area. Also decreases were observed in superoxide generation and actin ring formation that are required for osteoclast survival and bone resorption activity. These findings suggest that icaritin, which was more potent than icariin and icariside II, enhanced the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts, and facilitated matrix calcification; meanwhile it inhibited osteoclastic differentiation in both osteoblast-preosteoclast coculture and osteoclast progenitor cell culture, and reduced the motility and bone resorption activity of isolated osteoclasts.
Huang J, Yuan L, Wang X, Zhang TL…
Life Sci. Aug 2007
Icariine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts by increasing production of bone morphogenetic protein 2.
Icariine is a flavonoid isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Epimedium pubescens and is the main active compound of it. Recently, Epimedium pubescens was found to have a therapeutic effect on osteoporosis. But the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the study was to research the effect of Icariine on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts.
Human osteoblasts were obtained by inducing human marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) directionally and were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of Icariine. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was used to observe the effect of Icariine on cell proliferation. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the amount of calcified nodules were assayed to observe the effect on cell differentiation. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Icariine (20 microg/ml) increased significantly the proliferation of human osteoblasts. And, Icariine (10 microg/ml and 20 microg/ml) increased the activity of ALP and the amount of calcified nodules of human osteoblasts significantly (P < 0.05). BMP-2 mRNA synthesis was elevated significantly in response to Icariine (20 microg/ml).
Icariine has a direct stimulatory effect on the proliferation and differentiation of cultured human osteoblast cells in vitro, which may be mediated by increasing production of BMP-2 in osteoblasts.
Yin XX, Chen ZQ, Liu ZJ, Ma QJ…
Chin. Med. J. Feb 2007
PMID: 17355822 | Free Full Text
Effects of total flavonoids and flavonol glycosides from Epimedium koreanum Nakai on the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts.
In a bioassay-guided drug screening for anti-osteoporosis activity, eight flavonol glycosides were isolated from Epimedium koreanum Nakai, which is traditionally widely used in China for the treatment of impotence and osteoporosis. The effects of total flavonoids and flavonol glycosides on the proliferation and differentiation of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells were evaluated by the MTT method and measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity). Total flavonoids (1.2 x10(-2) to 6.0 x10(-7) mg/ml) and flavonol glycosides (2.0 x10(-5) to 1.0 x10(-9) mol/l) exhibited a strong inhibition on the proliferation of primary osteoblasts at most concentrations. However, the total flavonoids and icariin significantly promoted the differentiation of primary osteoblasts. The results suggested that flavonoids from E. koreanum Nakai may improve the development of osteoblasts by promoting the ALP activity; and icariin might be one of the active constituents facilitating the differentiation of osteoblasts.
Zhang DW, Cheng Y, Wang NL, Zhang JC…
Phytomedicine Jan 2008
Resveratrol mediated modulation of Sirt-1/Runx2 promotes osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: potential role of Runx2 deacetylation.
Osteogenic repair in response to bone injury is characterized by activation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to osteoblasts. This study determined whether activation of Sirt-1 (a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase) by the phytoestrogen resveratrol affects osteogenic differentiation.
Monolayer and high-density cultures of MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells were treated with an osteogenic induction medium with/without the Sirt-1 inhibitor nicotinamide or/and resveratrol in a concentration dependent manner.
MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells differentiated to osteoblasts when exposed to osteogenic-induction medium. The osteogenic response was blocked by nicotinamide, resulting in adipogenic differentiation and expression of the adipose transcription regulator PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor). However, in nicotinamide-treated cultures, pre-treatment with resveratrol significantly enhanced osteogenesis by increasing expression of Runx2 (bone specific transcription factor) and decreasing expression of PPAR-γ. Activation of Sirt-1 by resveratrol in MSCs increased its binding to PPAR-γ and repressed PPAR-γ activity by involving its cofactor NCoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor). The modulatory effects of resveratrol on nicotinamide-induced expression of PPAR-γ and its cofactor NCoR were found to be mediated, at least in part, by Sirt-1/Runx2 association and deacetylation of Runx2. Finally, knockdown of Sirt-1 by using antisense oligonucleotides downregulated the expression of Sirt-1 protein and abolished the inhibitory effects of resveratrol, namely nicotinamide-induced Sirt-1 suppression and Runx2 acetylation, suggesting that the acetylated content of Runx2 is related to downregulated Sirt-1 expression.
These data support a critical role for Runx2 acetylation/deacetylation during osteogenic differentiation in MSCs in vitro.
Shakibaei M, Shayan P, Busch F, Aldinger C…
PLoS ONE 2012
PMID: 22539994 | Free Full Text
From the introduction:
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytoestrogen (trans-3,5, 4′-trihydroxystilbene) found in the skin of red grapes, red vines, various other fruits, peanuts and root extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum . Resveratrol acts as a mixed agonist/antagonist for the estrogen receptors alpha and beta . Through binding to the estrogen receptor, resveratrol is thought to exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and may reverse osteoporosis by a direct stimulatory effect on bone formation in osteoblastic cells . Many of the biological effects of resveratrol have already been demonstrated in the literature; these include cardiovascular protection , anticancer activity  and stimulation of proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in human and mouse MSCs , . However, its effects on bone are less studied and are particularly relevant to this investigation.
From the discussion:
Resveratrol’s enhancement of osteogenesis was, at least in part regulated by Runx2 with additional contributions by Sirt-1. Resveratrol increases alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblastic cells  an effect that is blocked by tamoxifen, an estrogen antagonist, suggesting that some of resveratrol’s stimulatory actions may be mediated through the estrogen receptor. Gehm et al. have reported that resveratrol acts as a phytoestrogen (i.e. activating the estrogen receptor) and decreases osteoporosis . Moreover, resveratrol is one of the most potent Sirt-1 activators; through binding to a special binding site it induces a conformational change in Sirt-1, lowering the Km for both the acetylated substrate and NAD, thus resulting in increased enzymatic activity . Sirt-1 facilitates the differentiation of MSCs to osteoblasts by directly regulating factors such as Runx2 and by modulation of nuclear receptor co-repressor NCoR and PPAR-γ.
Involvement of PI3K/Akt/CREB and redox changes in mitochondrial defect of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.
Antimycin A (AMA) is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport via its binding to complex III. In the present study, the mechanisms involved in AMA-induced cell damage were investigated. Treatment of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells with AMA decreased adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) level, activities of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt (protein kinase B), and phosphorylated CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein).
To examine whether AMA-induced cell damage involves altered metabolism of pyridine nucleotides, the levels of NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), and NADPH were measured. Treatment with AMA significantly decreased the levels of NAD(+) and NADPH. Moreover, the activities of aconitase and thioredoxin reductase were decreased by AMA treatment. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt/CREB pathway and pyridine nucleotide (NAD(+) and NADPH) are related to mitochondria function of osteoblasts.
Choi EM, Lee YS
Toxicol In Vitro Aug 2011
Extracellular NAD+: a novel autocrine/paracrine signal in osteoblast physiology.
Intercellular communication allows co-ordination of cell metabolism and sensitivity to extracellular stimuli. In bone cells, paracrine stimulation and cell-to-cell coupling through gap junctions induce the formation of complex intercellular networks, which favours the intercellular exchange of nutrients and second messengers, ultimately controlling the process of bone remodelling. The importance of local factors in bone remodelling is known since many years. Bone cells secrete and respond to a variety signals, among which include prostaglandins, cytokines, growth factors, and ATP. We here report evidence that extracellular NAD(+) is a novel extracellular signal stimulating osteoblast differentiation. We found that HOBIT human osteoblastic cells, which are known to express ADP-ribosyl cyclase/CD38 activity, respond to micromolar concentrations of extracellular NAD(+) with oscillatory increases of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. The initial Ca(2+) response was followed by a time-dependent inhibition of cell growth, the appearance of an epithelial morphology, and by an increase of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression. Under resting condition HOBIT cells release NAD(+) in the extracellular medium and the release is significantly potentiated by mechanical stimulation. Taken together these results point to NAD(+) as a novel autocrine/paracrine factor involved in stimulation and maintenance of the osteoblast differentiated phenotype.
Romanello M, Bicego M, Pirulli D, Crovella S…
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Dec 2002
SIRT6 regulates osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells partially via suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway.
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a NAD-dependent deacetylase involved in lifespan regulation. To evaluate the effect of SIRT6 on osteogenesis, rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) with enhanced or reduced SIRT6 function were developed. We observed that SIRT6 knockdown significantly reduced the mRNA levels of several key osteogenic markers in vitro, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and osteocalcin (OCN), while overexpression of SIRT6 enhanced their expression. Additionally, SIRT6 knockdown activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and upregulated the expression of acetyl-NF-κB p65 (Lys310). The decreased osteogenic differentiation ability of rBMSCs could be partially rescued by the addition of NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082. Furthermore, SIRT6 overexpression in rBMSCs combined with the use of collagen/chitosan/HA scaffold (CHHS) could significantly boost new bone formation in rat cranial critical-sized defects, as determined by microcomputed tomography and histological examination. These data confirm that SIRT6 is mainly located in the nuclei of rBMSCs and plays an essential role in their normal osteogenic differentiation, partly by suppressing NF-κB signaling.
Sun H, Wu Y, Fu D, Liu Y…
Stem Cells Feb 2014
Effects of ginkgo biloba on in vitro osteoblast cells and ovariectomized rat osteoclast cells.
Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like biphasic effect on estrogen, and could be a potential alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Here, we investigated whether GBE can ameliorate estrogen-depleted osteoporosis in in vitro osteoblast cells and in estrogen-deprived ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a classical animal model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. GBE (50-150 microg/mL) significantly increased ALP (Alkaline phosphatase) activity of osteoblast cells, indicating that GBE promotes osteoblast mineralization. OVX rats exposed to GBE (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, oral treatment), raloxifene (3 mg/kg/day, oral treatment) or estradiol (E2, 10 microg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection) decreased osteoclast resorptive activity compared with OVX rats. GBE and raloxifene did not increase uterine weight compared with OVX rats, while E2 and Sham control did, suggesting that GBE has no uterotrophic activity, which is a disadvantage of estrogen therapy. In OVX rats, GBE did not restore severe bone density loss induced by OVX, indicating that GBE may be insufficient as therapeutic material for severe osteoporosis. However, despite its no effects on bone density loss in OVX rats, GBE did stimulate osteoblast differentiation and antiosteoclastic activity in vitro. Therefore, GBE may have preventive potential on osteoporosis as do other phytoestrogens.
Oh SM, Kim HR, Chung KH
Arch. Pharm. Res. Feb 2008