Resveratrol mediated modulation of Sirt-1/Runx2 promotes osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: potential role of Runx2 deacetylation.
Osteogenic repair in response to bone injury is characterized by activation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to osteoblasts. This study determined whether activation of Sirt-1 (a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase) by the phytoestrogen resveratrol affects osteogenic differentiation.
Monolayer and high-density cultures of MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells were treated with an osteogenic induction medium with/without the Sirt-1 inhibitor nicotinamide or/and resveratrol in a concentration dependent manner.
MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells differentiated to osteoblasts when exposed to osteogenic-induction medium. The osteogenic response was blocked by nicotinamide, resulting in adipogenic differentiation and expression of the adipose transcription regulator PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor). However, in nicotinamide-treated cultures, pre-treatment with resveratrol significantly enhanced osteogenesis by increasing expression of Runx2 (bone specific transcription factor) and decreasing expression of PPAR-γ. Activation of Sirt-1 by resveratrol in MSCs increased its binding to PPAR-γ and repressed PPAR-γ activity by involving its cofactor NCoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor). The modulatory effects of resveratrol on nicotinamide-induced expression of PPAR-γ and its cofactor NCoR were found to be mediated, at least in part, by Sirt-1/Runx2 association and deacetylation of Runx2. Finally, knockdown of Sirt-1 by using antisense oligonucleotides downregulated the expression of Sirt-1 protein and abolished the inhibitory effects of resveratrol, namely nicotinamide-induced Sirt-1 suppression and Runx2 acetylation, suggesting that the acetylated content of Runx2 is related to downregulated Sirt-1 expression.
These data support a critical role for Runx2 acetylation/deacetylation during osteogenic differentiation in MSCs in vitro.
From the introduction:
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytoestrogen (trans-3,5, 4′-trihydroxystilbene) found in the skin of red grapes, red vines, various other fruits, peanuts and root extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum . Resveratrol acts as a mixed agonist/antagonist for the estrogen receptors alpha and beta . Through binding to the estrogen receptor, resveratrol is thought to exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and may reverse osteoporosis by a direct stimulatory effect on bone formation in osteoblastic cells . Many of the biological effects of resveratrol have already been demonstrated in the literature; these include cardiovascular protection , anticancer activity  and stimulation of proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in human and mouse MSCs , . However, its effects on bone are less studied and are particularly relevant to this investigation.
From the discussion:
Resveratrol’s enhancement of osteogenesis was, at least in part regulated by Runx2 with additional contributions by Sirt-1. Resveratrol increases alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblastic cells  an effect that is blocked by tamoxifen, an estrogen antagonist, suggesting that some of resveratrol’s stimulatory actions may be mediated through the estrogen receptor. Gehm et al. have reported that resveratrol acts as a phytoestrogen (i.e. activating the estrogen receptor) and decreases osteoporosis . Moreover, resveratrol is one of the most potent Sirt-1 activators; through binding to a special binding site it induces a conformational change in Sirt-1, lowering the Km for both the acetylated substrate and NAD, thus resulting in increased enzymatic activity . Sirt-1 facilitates the differentiation of MSCs to osteoblasts by directly regulating factors such as Runx2 and by modulation of nuclear receptor co-repressor NCoR and PPAR-γ.