Melatonin regulates human bone sialoprotein gene transcription.
Melatonin is produced by the pineal gland and regulates various physiological processes including osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized connective tissue-specific protein expressed in the early stage of cementum and bone mineralization. To elucidate the effects of melatonin on human BSP gene expression, we utilized human Saos2 osteoblast-like cells. Melatonin (100 nM) increased the level of BSP mRNA at 3 h, and the level became maximal at 12 and 24 h. We then investigated the melatonin-induced transcriptional activity of luciferase constructs (between -84LUC and -868LUC) including different lengths of the human BSP gene promoter transfected into Saos2 cells. The effects of melatonin abrogated in constructs included 2-bp mutations in the two cAMP response elements (CRE1 and CRE2). The effects of melatonin were suppressed by protein kinase A, tyrosine kinase, ERK1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors. Gel mobility shift assays showed that melatonin increased the binding of nuclear proteins to CRE1 and CRE2, and antibodies against CRE binding protein 1 (CREB1), phospho-CREB1, c-Fos, c-Jun, JunD and Fra2 disrupted CRE1 and CRE2 protein complex formation. These data indicate that melatonin induces BSP transcription via the CRE1 and CRE2 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.