A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the RANKL-dependent differentiation and function of human osteoclasts.
This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold) and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.