Effects of combined treatment with eldecalcitol and alendronate on bone mass, mechanical properties, and bone histomorphometry in ovariectomized rats: a comparison with alfacalcidol and alendronate.
Eldecalcitol (ELD), a 2β-hydroxypropyloxy derivative of 1α,25 (OH) 2D3, inhibits bone resorption more potently than alfacalcidol (ALF) while maintaining osteoblastic function in an ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis rat model. Alendronate (ALN), which is the most common bisphosphonate used for the treatment of osteoporosis, increases the bone mineral density (BMD) by suppressing bone resorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of combination treatments with ELD and ALN or with ALF and ALN on bone mass and strength in OVX rats. Seventy female rats, 32 weeks old, were assigned to seven groups: (1) a sham-operated control group; (2) an OVX-control group; (3) an ELD group; (4) an ALF group; (5) an ALN group; (6) an ELD+ALN group; and (7) an ALF+ALN group. OVX rats were orally treated with ELD (0.015 μg/kg), ALF (0.0375 μg/kg), or ALN (0.2mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks. In both the lumbar spine and the femur, ELD and ALF monotherapy significantly increased the BMD, and ELD+ALN and ALF+ALN significantly increased the BMD, compared with ALN monotherapy, as an additive effect. In particular, ELD+ALN resulted in a significantly higher BMD than ALF+ALN in the femur. On mechanical testing of the lumbar spine, ELD and ALF monotherapy significantly increased the ultimate load, and ELD+ALN and ALF+ALN significantly increased the ultimate load compared with ALN monotherapy. In the femur, ELD, ELD+ALN, and ALF+ALN treatment significantly increased the ultimate load, compared with the OVX-control group, and ELD+ALN resulted in a significantly higher ultimate load than ALN monotherapy. A histomorphometric analysis showed that ELD monotherapy and ELD+ALN combination therapy had a potent inhibitory effect on bone resorption parameters (osteoclast surface and eroded surface), while maintaining bone formation parameters (osteoblast surface and osteoid surface). By contrast, ALF and ALF+ALN significantly lowered the histological parameters of both bone resorption and formation. These results suggested that ELD or ALF used in combination with ALN has therapeutic advantages over ALN monotherapy, with ELD+ALN combination treatment producing an especially beneficial anti-osteoporotic effect by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption and maintaining osteoblastic function, compared with ALF+ALN combination treatment.
Sugimoto M, Futaki N, Harada M, Kaku S
Bone Jan 2013