One year B and D vitamins supplementation improves metabolic bone markers.
Vitamin D and vitamin B deficiency are common in elderly subjects and are important risk factors for osteoporosis and age-related diseases. Supplementation with these vitamins is a promising preventative strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamins D3 and B supplementation on bone turnover and metabolism in elderly people.
Healthy subjects (n=93; >54 years) were randomly assigned to receive either daily vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (0.5 mg), vitamin B12 (0.5 mg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), and calcium carbonate (456 mg) (group A) or only vitamin D3 plus calcium carbonate (group B) in a double blind trial. We measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of supplementation vitamins, metabolites, and bone turnover markers.
At baseline mean plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was low (40 or 30 nmol/L) and parathormone was high (63.7 or 77.9 pg/mL). 25(OH)D and parathormone correlated inversely. S-Adenosyl homocysteine and S-adenosyl methionine correlated with bone alkaline phosphatase, sclerostin, and parathormone. One year vitamin D3 or D3 and B supplementation increased plasma 25(OH)D by median 87.6% (group A) and 133.3% (group B). Parathormone was lowered by median 28.3% (A) and 41.2% (B), bone alkaline phosphatase decreased by 2.8% (A) and 16.2% (B), osteocalin by 37.5% (A) and 49.4% (B), and tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase 5b by 6.1% (A) and 36.0% (B). Median total homocysteine (tHcy) was high at baseline (group A: 12.6, group B: 12.3 µmol/L) and decreased by B vitamins (group A) to 8.9 µmol/L (29.4%). tHcy lowering had no additional effect on bone turnover.
One year vitamin D3 supplementation with or without B vitamins decreased the bone turnover significantly. Vitamin D3 lowered parathormone. The additional application of B vitamins did not further improve bone turnover. The marked tHcy lowering by B vitamins may modulate the osteoporotic risk.
Herrmann W, Kirsch SH, Kruse V, Eckert R…
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. Mar 2013
Plasma B vitamins, homocysteine, and their relation with bone loss and hip fracture in elderly men and women.
Elevated homocysteine is a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures among elders, yet it may be a marker for low B-vitamin status.
Our objective was to examine the associations of plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and homocysteine with bone loss and hip fracture risk in elderly men and women. This was a longitudinal follow-up study of the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.
Community dwelling residents of Framingham, MA, were included in the study.
A total of 1002 men and women (mean age 75 yr) was included in the study.
Baseline (1987-1989) blood samples were used to categorize participants into plasma B-vitamin (normal, low, deficient) and homocysteine (normal, high) groups. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) measured at baseline and 4-yr follow-up was used to calculate annual percent BMD change. Incident hip fracture was assessed from baseline through 2003.
Multivariable-adjusted mean bone loss was inversely associated with vitamin B6 (P for trend 0.01). Vitamins B12 and B6 were inversely associated with hip fracture risk (all P for trend < 0.05), yet associations were somewhat attenuated and not significant after controlling for baseline BMD, serum vitamin D, and homocysteine. Participants with high homocysteine (>14 micromol/liter) had approximately 70% higher hip fracture risk after adjusting for folate and vitamin B6, but this association was attenuated after controlling for vitamin B12 (hazard ratio = 1.49; 95% confidence interval 0.91, 2.46).
Low B-vitamin concentration may be a risk factor for decreased bone health, yet does not fully explain the relation between elevated homocysteine and hip fracture. Thus, homocysteine is not merely a marker for low B-vitamin status.
McLean RR, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Fredman L…
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Jun 2008
PMID: 18364381 | Free Full Text
Effect of dietary B vitamins on BMD and risk of fracture in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam study.
A mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level is a novel and potentially modifiable risk factor for age-related osteoporotic fractures. Elevated Hcy levels can have a nutritional cause, such as inadequate intake of folate, riboflavin, pyridoxine or cobalamin, which serve as cofactors or substrates for the enzymes involved in the Hcy metabolism. We examined the association between intake of Hcy-related B vitamin (riboflavin, pyridoxine, folate and cobalamin) and femoral neck bone mineral density BMD (FN-BMD) and the risk of fracture in a large population-based cohort of elderly Caucasians. We studied 5304 individuals aged 55 years and over from the Rotterdam Study. Dietary intake of nutrients was obtained from food frequency questionnaires. Incident non-vertebral fractures were recorded during a mean follow-up period of 7.4 years, and vertebral fractures were assessed by X-rays during a mean follow-up period of 6.4 years. We observed a small but significant positive association between dietary pyridoxine (beta = 0.09, p = 1 x 10(-8)) and riboflavin intake (beta = 0.06, p = 0.002) and baseline FN-BMD. In addition, after controlling for gender, age and BMI, pyridoxine intake was inversely correlated to fracture risk. As compared to the three lowest quartiles, individuals in the highest quartile of age- and energy-adjusted dietary pyridoxine intake had a decreased risk of non-vertebral fractures (HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.92, p = 0.005) and of fragility fractures (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.77, p = 0.0004). Further adjustments for other dietary B vitamins (riboflavin, folate and cobalamin), dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A and vitamin K, protein and energy intake, smoking and BMD did not essentially modify these results. We conclude that increased dietary riboflavin and pyridoxine intake was associated with higher FN-BMD. Furthermore, we found a reduction in risk of fracture in relation to dietary pyridoxine intake independent of BMD. These findings highlight the importance of considering nutritional factors in epidemiological studies of osteoporosis and fractures.
Yazdanpanah N, Zillikens MC, Rivadeneira F, de Jong R…
Bone Dec 2007