Dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B2 or B12, is associated with increased bone mineral density 5 years after the menopause: results from a 10-year follow-up study in early postmenopausal women.
Folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), and vitamin B12 may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data on whether dietary intakes affect bone. Our aim was to investigate whether intake of folate, vitamin B2) and vitamin B12, as assessed by food records affects BMD and fracture risk. In a population-based cohort including 1,869 perimenopausal women from the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study, associations between intakes and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Moreover, associations between intakes and 5- and 10-year changes in BMD as well as risk of fracture were studied. Intakes of folate, vitamin B2, and vitamin B12 were 417 (range 290-494) microg/day, 2.70 (range 1.70-3.16) mg/day, and 4.98 (range 3.83-6.62) microg/day, respectively, i.e., slightly above the intakes recommended by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. At year 5, but not at baseline, cross-sectional analyses showed positive correlations between daily intake from diet and from diet plus supplements of folate and BMD at the femoral neck (P < 0.01). However, no associations were found between intakes and changes in BMD. During 10 years of follow-up, 360 subjects sustained a fracture. Compared with 1,440 controls, logistic regression analyses revealed no difference in intakes between cases and controls. A high dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B2 or B12, exerts positive effects on BMD; but further studies are needed to confirm this association.
Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Hermann AP, Brot C…
Calcif. Tissue Int. Jan 2008
Effect of dietary B vitamins on BMD and risk of fracture in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam study.
A mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level is a novel and potentially modifiable risk factor for age-related osteoporotic fractures. Elevated Hcy levels can have a nutritional cause, such as inadequate intake of folate, riboflavin, pyridoxine or cobalamin, which serve as cofactors or substrates for the enzymes involved in the Hcy metabolism. We examined the association between intake of Hcy-related B vitamin (riboflavin, pyridoxine, folate and cobalamin) and femoral neck bone mineral density BMD (FN-BMD) and the risk of fracture in a large population-based cohort of elderly Caucasians. We studied 5304 individuals aged 55 years and over from the Rotterdam Study. Dietary intake of nutrients was obtained from food frequency questionnaires. Incident non-vertebral fractures were recorded during a mean follow-up period of 7.4 years, and vertebral fractures were assessed by X-rays during a mean follow-up period of 6.4 years. We observed a small but significant positive association between dietary pyridoxine (beta = 0.09, p = 1 x 10(-8)) and riboflavin intake (beta = 0.06, p = 0.002) and baseline FN-BMD. In addition, after controlling for gender, age and BMI, pyridoxine intake was inversely correlated to fracture risk. As compared to the three lowest quartiles, individuals in the highest quartile of age- and energy-adjusted dietary pyridoxine intake had a decreased risk of non-vertebral fractures (HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.92, p = 0.005) and of fragility fractures (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.77, p = 0.0004). Further adjustments for other dietary B vitamins (riboflavin, folate and cobalamin), dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A and vitamin K, protein and energy intake, smoking and BMD did not essentially modify these results. We conclude that increased dietary riboflavin and pyridoxine intake was associated with higher FN-BMD. Furthermore, we found a reduction in risk of fracture in relation to dietary pyridoxine intake independent of BMD. These findings highlight the importance of considering nutritional factors in epidemiological studies of osteoporosis and fractures.
Yazdanpanah N, Zillikens MC, Rivadeneira F, de Jong R…
Bone Dec 2007
Low dietary riboflavin but not folate predicts increased fracture risk in postmenopausal women homozygous for the MTHFR 677 T allele.
The MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with mildly elevated homocysteine levels when folate and/or riboflavin status is low. Furthermore, a mildly elevated homocysteine level is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. We studied whether dietary intake of riboflavin and folate modifies the effects of the MTHFR C677T variant on fracture risk in 5,035 men and women from the Rotterdam Study. We found that the MTHFR C677T variant interacts with dietary riboflavin intake to influence fracture risk in women.
The MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels in the presence of low folate and/or riboflavin status. A mildly elevated Hcy level was recently identified as a modifiable risk factor for osteoporotic fracture. We studied whether dietary intake of riboflavin and folate modifies the effects of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on BMD and fracture risk.
We studied 5,035 individuals from the Rotterdam Study, >or=55 yr of age, who had data available on MTHFR, nutrient intake, and fracture risk. We performed analysis on Hcy levels in a total of 666 individuals, whereas BMD data were present for 4,646 individuals (2,692 women).
In the total population, neither the MTHFR C677T polymorphism nor low riboflavin intake was associated with fracture risk and BMD. However, in the lowest quartile of riboflavin intake, female 677-T homozygotes had a 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1-2.9, p = 0.01) times higher risk for incident osteoporotic fractures and a 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.1, p = 0.01) times higher risk for fragility fractures compared with the 677-CC genotype (interaction, p = 0.0002). This effect was not seen for baseline BMD in both men and women. No significant influence was found for dietary folate intake on the association between the MTHFR C677T genotype and fracture risk or BMD. In the lowest quartile of dietary riboflavin intake, T-homozygous individuals (men and women combined) had higher (22.5%) Hcy levels compared with C-homozygotes (mean difference = 3.44 microM, p = 0. 01; trend, p = 0.02).
In this cohort of elderly whites, the MTHFR C677T variant interacts with dietary riboflavin intake to influence fracture risk in women.
Yazdanpanah N, Uitterlinden AG, Zillikens MC, Jhamai M…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Jan 2008
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism interacts with riboflavin intake to influence bone mineral density.
Bone mineral density is a complex trait regulated by an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have identified a functional polymorphism affecting codon 677 of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene that is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese and Danish postmenopausal women and increased risk of fracture in elderly Danish women. Since dietary B vitamins can influence circulating homocysteine (tHcy) levels, we examined the relationship among MTHFR genotype, B complex vitamins (folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and riboflavin), BMD, and rate of change in BMD in a longitudinal study of 1241 Scottish women aged 45-54 years, at the time of initial study, who were followed up for a mean (SD) of 6.6 (0.7) years. There was no significant association between BMD and either MTHFR genotype or B complex vitamins when examined separately. However, we detected a significant interaction among quartile of energy-adjusted riboflavin intake, MTHFR ‘TT’ genotype, and BMD (P = 0.01 for baseline FN BMD, P = 0.02 for follow-up FN BMD). Increasing dietary riboflavin intake correlated with LS BMD and FN BMD in homozygotes for the MTHFR ‘T’ allele, which remained significant for FN after adjustment for confounders (r = 0.192, P = 0.036 for baseline; r = 0.186, P = 0.043 at follow-up) but not in the other genotypes. This raises the possibility that riboflavin intake and MTHFR genotype might interact to regulate BMD. Further work is required to determine if this association holds true for other populations and ethnic groups.
Macdonald HM, McGuigan FE, Fraser WD, New SA…
Bone Oct 2004