Effects of pomegranate extracts on cartilage, bone and mesenchymal cells of mouse fetuses.
Pomegranate is a rich source of polyphenols, which are believed to be responsible for the oestrogenic activities of extracts of this fruit in mice. One of these potential activities is the prevention of bone loss. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of pomegranate extract on chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in mouse embryos in vivo and limb bud cultures in vitro. A total of fifty pregnant Balb/c mice were given vehicle, pomegranate juice extract (PJE), pomegranate husk extract (PHE) or a mixture of husk and juice extract (PME). Their embryos were stained with alizarin red S and alcian blue, and the length of the femur, tibia and their ossification zones were measured on day 19 of gestation. Bone Ca content in pregnant mice was also measured. Mice treated with PJE showed an increase in bone Ca content. Dietary supplementation with all extracts significantly increased embryo femur length and osteogenesis index. Mesenchymal cells from fetal limb buds were cultured and exposed to 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 μg/ml of PJE, PHE or PME. The number of viable cells was greater in cultures exposed to the extracts than in control cultures. The number of cartilage nodules and their diameters were greater in extract-treated cell cultures, a finding which reflected increased cell proliferation and differentiation rates. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that pomegranate is able to enhance bone formation.
Monsefi M, Parvin F, Talaei-Khozani T
Br. J. Nutr. Mar 2012
Stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation and inhibition of interleukin-6 and nitric oxide in MC3T3-E1 cells by pomegranate ethanol extract.
In this experiment, we studied the effects of pomegranate fruit extract (PE) on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the production of local factors in osteoblasts. PE (16 approximately 250 microg/ml) significantly increased the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells (P < 0.05). Moreover, PE (50 microg/ml) caused a significant elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen content in the cells. We then examined the effect of PE on the TNF-alpha-induced production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) in osteoblasts. Treatment with PE (10 approximately 50 microg/ml) decreased the TNF-alpha (10(-10) M)-induced production of IL-6 and NO in osteoblasts.
Kim YH, Choi EM
Phytother Res May 2009
Pomegranate extract improves a depressive state and bone properties in menopausal syndrome model ovariectomized mice.
Pomegranate is known to contain estrogens (estradiol, estrone, and estriol) and show estrogenic activities in mice. In this study, we investigated whether pomegranate extract is effective on experimental menopausal syndrome in ovariectomized mice. Prolongation of the immobility time in forced swimming test, an index of depression, was measured 14 days after ovariectomy. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the tibia was measured by X-ray absorptiometry and the structure and metabolism of bone were also analyzed by bone histomorphometry. Administration of pomegranate extract (juice and seed extract) for 2 weeks to ovariectomized mice prevented the loss of uterus weight and shortened the immobility time compared with 5% glucose-dosed mice (control). In addition, ovariectomy-induced decrease of BMD was normalized by administration of the pomegranate extract. The bone volume and the trabecular number were significantly increased and the trabecular separation was decreased in the pomegranate-dosed group compared with the control group. Some histological bone formation/resorption parameters were significantly increased by ovariectomy but were normalized by administration of the pomegranate extract. These changes suggest that the pomegranate extract inhibits ovariectomy-stimulated bone turnover. It is thus conceivable that pomegranate is clinically effective on a depressive state and bone loss in menopausal syndrome in women.
Mori-Okamoto J, Otawara-Hamamoto Y, Yamato H, Yoshimura H
J Ethnopharmacol May 2004