Effect of a combination of genistein, polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins D3 and K1 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study.
Many postmenopausal women desire non-pharmaceutical alternatives to hormone therapy for protection against osteoporosis. Soybean isoflavones, especially genistein, are being studied for this purpose. This study examined the effects of synthetic genistein in combination with other potential bone-protective dietary molecules on bone mineral density (BMD) in early postmenopausal women.
In this 6-month double-blind pilot study, 70 subjects were randomized to receive daily either calcium only or the geniVida™ bone blend (GBB), which consisted of genistein (30 mg/days), vitamin D3 (800 IU/days), vitamin K1 (150 μg/days) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g polyunsaturated fatty acids as ethyl ester: eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio = ~2/1). Markers of bone resorption and formation and BMD at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, Ward’s triangle, trochanter and intertrochanter, total hip and whole body were assessed.
Subjects supplemented with the GBB (n = 30) maintained femoral neck BMD, whereas in the placebo group (n = 28), BMD significantly decreased (p = 0.007). There was also a significant difference (p < 0.05) in BMD between the groups at Ward’s triangle in favor of the GBB group. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and N-telopeptide significantly increased in the GBB group in comparison with those in baseline and in the placebo group. The GBB was well tolerated, and there were no significant differences in adverse events between groups.
The GBB may help to prevent osteoporosis and reduce fracture risk, at least at the hip, in postmenopausal women. Larger and longer-term clinical trials are warranted.
Regulatory mechanism of food factors in bone metabolism and prevention of osteoporosis.
Aging induces a decrease in bone mass, and osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Bone loss with increasing age may be due to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. Pharmacologic and nutritional factors may prevent bone loss with aging, although chemical compounds in food and plants which act on bone metabolism are poorly understood. We have found that isoflavones (including genistein and daidzein), which are contained in soybeans, have a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption, thereby increasing bone mass. Menaquinone-7, an analogue of vitamin K(2) which is abundant in fermented soybeans, has been demonstrated to stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. Of various carotenoids, beta-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unchiu MARC), has a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption. The supplementation of these factors has a preventive effect on bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats, which are an animal model of osteoporosis, and their intake has been shown to have a stimulatory effect on bone mass in humans. Factors with an anabolic effect on bone metabolism were found in extracts obtained from wasabi leafstalk (Wasabi japonica MATSUM), the marine alga Sargassum horneri, and bee pollen Cistus ladaniferus. Phytocomponent p-hydroxycinnamic acid was also found to have an anabolic effect on bone metabolism. Food chemical factors thus play a role in bone health and may be important in the prevention of bone loss with increasing age.
Influence of a low dose of dietary soybean on bone properties and mineral status in young rats.
The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of dietary supplementation with genistein, daidzein stachyose, and raw or cooked soybean on mineral content, optical density, and mechanical properties of bones in growing rats. The experiment was performed on 70 male young Wistar rats (4 weeks old at the start of the experiment) divided into seven groups. Genistein, daidzein, or stachyose were administered by gavage. Raw or cooked soybean was added directly to the diet (1%) The experiment lasted 28 days. Femurs were removed postmortem and kept until analysis at -20°C. Mineral content in bones was determined by atomic absorption flame spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Optical density was analyzed with a KODAK 1D 3.5 system. Mechanical properties were tested using INSTRON 4301 equipment. Genistein increased mineral content in bones of growing rats. Biological action of genistein and daidzein on the mineralization of bone tissues in growing rats was different. Addition of stachyose (1.9 mg/day/rat) did not affect bone tissues, nor did the addition of raw or cooked soybean. None of the studied biologically active substances: genistein (0.26 mg/day/rat), daidzein (0.104 mg/day/rat), stachyose (1.9 mg/day/rat), or soybean had an effect on bone optical density.
Estrogenic agonism and antagonism of the soy isoflavone genistein in uterus, bone and lymphopoiesis in mice.
The isoflavone genistein (Gen) is a naturally occurring phytoestrogen found in high concentrations in soy. The biological effects of Gen have been extensively studied. The immunomodulating properties of Gen are, however, less well investigated and the results are contradictory. Our aim was to study possible estrogen agonistic and antagonistic properties of Gen in uterus, bone, lymphopoiesis and B-cell function by comparing effects in castrated and intact female mice, respectively. Oophorectomized (OVX) and sham-operated mice were treated with s.c. doses of 17beta-estradiol (E2) (0.16 mg/kg), Gen (50 mg/kg), or vehicle (olive oil) as control. Effects on bone mineral density (BMD) were studied using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, uterine and thymus weights were examined, lymphopoiesis in thymus and bone marrow was analyzed using flow cytometry, and the frequency of immunoglobulin-producing B cells in bone marrow and spleen was studied using an ELISPOT assay. Gen was clearly antagonizing endogenous estrogen in sham-operated female mice as shown by inhibiting the uterine weight and by increasing the frequency of B lymphopoietic cells in bone marrow. The only agonistic effect of Gen was shown by increased BMD in OVX mice. Our results are discussed in the context of estrogen receptor biology.
Erlandsson MC, Islander U, Moverare S, Ohlsson C…
APMIS May 2005 PMID: 16011657
Comparison of the bone protective effects of an isoflavone-rich diet with dietary and subcutaneous administrations of genistein in ovariectomized rats.
Administration of the isoflavone genistein (GEN) has been described to result in bone protection but also to induce uterotrophic responses. To compare bone protective effects of GEN with an isoflavone-rich diet (IRD) and to further elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in bone-protection, ovariectomized rats (OVX) received either a diet low in isoflavone content (IDD) enriched with GEN (42 mg kg(-1)b.wtd(-1)) (GEN(d)), an IRD (14 mg kg(-1)b.wtd(-1) GEN, 14 mg kg(-1)b.wtd(-1) daidzein) or were treated subcutaneously (s.c.) with GEN (10 mg kg(-1)b.wtd(-1)) (GEN(sc)) for 12 weeks. Intact (SHAM), vehicle treated OVX animals and those substituted with 17beta-estradiol (2microg kg(-1)b.wtd(-1)) (E(2)), served as controls. OVX-induced bone loss could be antagonized in E(2), GEN(sc), GEN(d) and IRD groups. Uterine wet weight (UWW) was only stimulated in E(2) and GEN(sc) animals. Serum biomarkers of bone-formation (osteocalcin, osteopontin) and bone-resorption (telopeptides of collagen type I, pyridinoline cross-links) were elevated in OVX compared to SHAM and E(2) animals. Feeding IRD stimulated bone-formation and inhibited bone-resorption, whereas s.c. or dietary administration of GEN only resulted in a stimulation of bone-formation. The results of the present study indicate that in contrast to s.c. administration, dietary intake of GEN resulted in bone protection without stimulation of UWW. Dietary intake of isoflavones by an IRD also did not result in a stimulation of UWW, yet IRD appeared to be more effective in bone protection than administration of pure GEN.
Hertrampf T, Schleipen B, Offermanns C, Velders M…
Toxicol. Lett. Feb 2009 PMID: 19063953
Investigating the optimal soy protein and isoflavone intakes for women: a perspective.
Traditional soyfoods have been consumed for centuries throughout much of East Asia and, recently, these foods have also become popular in the West. Soyfoods and specific soybean components, such as the protein and isoflavones, have attracted attention for their possible health benefits. Isoflavones are classified as phytoestrogens and have been postulated to be natural alternatives to hormone therapy for menopausal women. To provide guidance on optimal soy intake, this article evaluates Asian soy consumption and both clinical and Asian epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship between soy intake and a variety of health outcomes. On the basis of these data and the standard principles of dietary practice the author suggests that optimal soy protein and isoflavone intakes are 15-20 g/day and 50-90 mg/day, respectively. In addition, an intake of 25 g/day soy protein can be specifically used as the recommendation for cholesterol reduction.
The phytoestrogen genistein reduces bone loss in short-term ovariectomized rats.
The incidence of fractures and of osteoporosis differs between Oriental and Western Caucasian women. This may depend, at least in part, on nutritional factors, including dissimilarities in dietary intake of phytoestrogens. To investigate this possibility, 2-month-old female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SHAM), fed a casein-based diet, injected daily with subcutaneous genistein (GEN), the most abundant and best characterized phytoestrogen, or vehicle (Veh) and killed 21 days after surgery. As expected, ovariectomy resulted in loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and in uterine atrophy. However, administration of 5 micrograms GEN per gram body weight (b.w.) ameliorated the ovariectomy-induced loss of BMD (189 +/- 2 mg/cm2 in OVX and 192 +/- 2 in OVX with 5 micrograms GEN/g b.w. per day; p < 0.05). One microgram GEN per gram body weight did not affect the BMD loss and the effect of the 5 micrograms and 25 micrograms GEN per gram body weight were statistically not different. A trend toward reduced uterine atrophy (21% reduction) was noted with the 25 micrograms GEN dose, but not with the 1 microgram and 5 micrograms doses. A separate experiment with 2 x 2 factorial design was conducted to elucidate the mechanism by which GEN ameliorates ovariectomy-induced bone loss. In this experiment, histomorphometry demonstrated a dramatic reduction in trabecular bone volume after ovariectomy (7.6 +/- 0.7% of total bone volume in SHAM-Veh vs 3.3 +/- 0.2% in OVX-Veh; p < 0.01) and less bone loss in OVX rats injected with 5 micrograms GEN per gram per day (3.3 +/- 0.2% of total bone volume in OVX-Veh vs 5.2 +/- 0.4% in OVX-GEN; p < 0.01). Administration of GEN was associated with higher bone formation rate per tissue volume and with a trend toward a higher number of osteoblasts per bone perimeter. The parameters of bone resorption were not affected by GEN. The concentration of serum osteocalcin and the urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline provided corroborating results. Since production of proinflammatory cytokines is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the effect of GEN on lipopolysaccharide-induced in vitro production of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) was tested in monocytic cells from the same four rat groups. Production of TNF alpha was markedly elevated in OVX-Veh as compared with the SHAM-Veh rats, but this was blocked by GEN in the OVX rats. This study shows that GEN reduces both trabecular and compact bone loss after ovariectomy and that this protective effect differs from that of estrogen, since it depends on stimulation of bone formation rather than on suppression of bone resorption. Lack of action of GEN on uterine atrophy supports the possibility that this GEN dose affects target tissues via non-estrogenic mechanisms. Modulation of cytokine production may be involved in the effect of GEN on bone.
Comparison of the phytohormones genistein, resveratrol and 8-prenylnaringenin as agents for preventing osteoporosis.
As the average age of society increases, identifying and preventing osteoporosis becomes more important. According to the results of the Women’s Health Initiative study, substitution of estradiol is not recommended in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), although phytoestrogens might be a safe alternative. In this study, the osteoprotective effects of genistein (Gen), resveratrol (Res) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) were evaluated by analysing bone biomechanical strength and bone mineral density. After ovariectomy, 88 female rats received soy-free food (C), and according to their grouping, were fed estradiol (E), GEN, RES or 8PN for 12 weeks. The phytohormones were given in two dosages. To analyse the osteoprotective effects of the tested substances, bone biomechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated on the upper tibial metaphysis. Bone biomechanical properties were significantly improved after treatment with E (F (max): 90.6 N) and 8PN (85.0 N) compared to GEN (76.0 N), RES (72.6 N) and C (76.6 N). Bone biomechanical properties with 8PN (yL: 55.7 N) supplementation reached a level similar to that seen after E (49.3 N) supplementation. Treatment with GEN (38.5 N) was not as effective as E and 8PN, but demonstrated improved biomechanical properties compared to C (40.1 N) and RES (36.3 N). E (Cn.Dn. 217 mg/cm (3)) and 8PN (165 mg/cm3) showed superior results in the analysis of bone mineral density compared to C (112 mg/cm (3)). GEN (164 mg/cm (3)) also demonstrated superior results, though not as good as E and 8PN. RES (124 mg/cm (3)) revealed no effect on bone density. Treatment with 8PN resulted in very good biomechanical properties and showed an increased BMD. GEN had a smaller effect on bone biomechanical strength, while RES did not have an effect on bone biomechanical strength or BMD. Therefore, 8PN might be a safe alternative for HRT, but further studies are needed.
Synergism between resveratrol and other phytochemicals: implications for obesity and osteoporosis.
Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has gained much attention recently due to its effects on sirtuins. While the anti-cancer properties of resveratrol have been extensively investigated, the anti-adipogenic and osteogenic effects of resveratrol are also gaining considerable interest. The finding that resveratrol supplementation mimics caloric restriction prompted researchers to study the effects of resveratrol on lipid metabolism. Mesenchymal stem cells are the precursors for both adipocytes and osteoblasts. In the aging population, differentiation to adipocytes dominates over the differentiation to osteoblasts in bone marrow, contributing to the increased tendency for fractures to occur in the elderly. Thus, an inverse relationship exists between adipocytes and osteoblasts in the bone marrow. Resveratrol acts on several molecular targets in adipocytes and osteoblasts leading to a decrease in adipocyte number and size and an increase in osteogenesis. Furthermore, resveratrol in combination with genistein and quercetin synergistically decreased adipogenesis in murine and human adipocytes. A recent in vivo study showed that phytochemicals including resveratrol in combination with vitamin D prevented weight gain and bone loss in a postmenopausal rat model. Therefore, combinations of resveratrol with other phytochemicals may lead to potential novel potent therapies for both obesity and osteoporosis.
Rayalam S, Della-Fera MA, Baile CA
Mol Nutr Food Res Aug 2011 PMID: 21538845
Estradiol and resveratrol stimulating effect on osteocalcin, but not osteonectin and collagen-1alpha gene expression in primary culture of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells.
Evidence is available that some endocrine disruptors, acting as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), interfere with osteoblast differentiation and function. Therefore, we investigated whether 17beta-estradiol, bisphenol-A (BSP), silymarin, genistein, resveratrol, procymidone, linurone and benzophenone-3 (BP3) modulate differentiation of rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells in primary in vitro culture. Disruptors were added at day 18 of culture and cells were harvested 48 h later. Real time-PCR revealed that estradiol and resveratrol enhanced osteocalcin mRNA expression in ROB cells, while other disruptors were ineffective. The expression of osteonectin and collagen-1alpha was not affected by any disruptor. Estradiol, resveratrol, genistein and BSP stimulated the proliferative activity of ROB cells. In contrast, procymidone and linurone inhibited the proliferative activity, and silymarin and BP3 were ineffective. The conclusion is drawn that i) only resveratrol is able, like estradiol, to stimulate the specialized functions of ROB cells, and ii) the proliferative activity of ROB cells is more sensitive to endocrine disruptors, some of which could probably act via a mechanism independent of their SERM activity.
Rucinski M, Ziolkowska A, Hochol A, Pucher A…
Int. J. Mol. Med. Oct 2006 PMID: 16964405