N-acetyl cysteine as an osteogenesis-enhancing molecule for bone regeneration.
Bone regeneration often requires cues from osteogenesis-inducing factors for successful outcome. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidant small molecule, possibly modulates osteoblastic differentiation. This study investigated the potential of NAC as an osteogenesis-enhancing molecule in vitro and in vivo. Various concentrations of NAC (0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mM) were added to rat bone marrow stromal cell or osteoblastic cell culture in media with or without dexamethasone. The results showed marked enhancement of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation together with consistent upregulation of bone-related gene markers such as collagen I, osteopontin, and osteocalcin in the osteoblastic culture with addition of 2.5 or 5.0 mM NAC regardless of the presence of dexamethasone. Micro-CT-based analysis and histological observation revealed that addition of NAC to a collagenous sponge implanted in a critical size cortical bone defect (3.0 mm × 5.0 mm) in rat femur yielded acceleration and completion of defect closure, with thick, compact, and contiguous bone after 6 weeks of healing. In contrast, with sponge alone, only sparse and incomplete bone regeneration was observed during the matching healing period. These results indicate that NAC can function as an osteogenesis-enhancing molecule to accelerate bone regeneration by activating differentiation of osteogenic lineages.
Yamada M, Tsukimura N, Ikeda T, Sugita Y…
Biomaterials Aug 2013
Swedish mutant APP suppresses osteoblast differentiation and causes osteoporotic deficit, which are ameliorated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine.
Reduced bone mineral density and hip fracture are frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, mechanisms underlying their association remain poorly understood. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), osteoblasts (OBs), macrophages (BMMs), and osteoclasts (OCs). Mutations in the APP gene identified in early-onset AD patients are believed to cause AD. But little is known about APP’s role in bone remodeling. Here, we present evidence for Swedish mutant APP (APPswe) in suppression of OB differentiation and function in culture and in mouse. APP expression in BMSCs increases during aging. Ubiquitous expression of APPswe in young adult Tg2576 transgenic mice (under the control of a prion promoter) recaptured skeletal “aging-like” deficits, including decreased OB genesis and bone formation, increased adipogenesis and bone marrow fat, and enhanced OC genesis and bone resorption. Remarkably, selective expression of APPswe in mature OB-lineage cells in TgAPPswe-Ocn mice (under the control of osteocalcin [Ocn] promoter-driven Cre) also decreased OB genesis and increased OC formation, resulting in a trabecular bone loss. These results thus suggest a cell-autonomous role for APPswe in suppressing OB formation and function, but a nonautonomous effect on OC genesis. Notably, increased adipogenesis and elevated bone marrow fat were detected in young adult Tg2576 mice, but not in TgAPPswe-Ocn mice, implying that APPswe in BMSCs and/or multicell types in bone marrow promotes bone marrow adipogenesis. Intriguingly, the skeletal aging-like deficits in young adult Tg2576 mice were prevented by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may underlie APPswe-induced osteoporotic deficits. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for APPswe in suppressing OB differentiation and bone formation, implicate APPswe as a detrimental factor for AD-associated osteoporotic deficit, and reveal a potential clinical value of NAC in the treatment of osteoporotic deficits.
Xia WF, Jung JU, Shun C, Xiong S…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Oct 2013
N-acetylcysteine decreases alveolar bone loss on experimental periodontitis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphometric and histopathological changes associated with experimental periodontitis in diabetic rats in response to systemic administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl-containing thiol antioxidant.
Sixty Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: nonligated (NL) group; ligature-only (L) group; streptozotocin-only (STZ) group; STZ and ligature (STZ + L) group; and systemic administration of NAC and ligature (70 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day, respectively) (NAC70 and NAC100 groups). Diabetes mellitus was induced by 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Silk ligatures were placed at the gingival margin of the lower first molars of the mandibular quadrant. The study duration was 30 d and the animals were killed at the end of this period. Changes in alveolar bone levels were clinically measured and tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups.
At the end of the 30-d study period, alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the STZ + L group compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). Also, alveolar bone loss in all the NAC groups was significantly lower than in the STZ + L and L groups (p < 0.05). The osteoblastic activity in the NAC100 group was significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05).
Within the limits of this study, it can be suggested that NAC, when administered systemically, prevents alveolar bone loss in the diabetic rat model.
Toker H, Ozdemir H, Balcı H, Ozer H
J. Periodont. Res. Dec 2012
Homocysteine alters the osteoprotegerin/RANKL system in the osteoblast to promote bone loss: pivotal role of the redox regulator forkhead O1.
In this study we determined the molecular mechanisms of how homocysteine differentially affects receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis in the bone. The results showed that oxidative stress induced by homocysteine deranges insulin-sensitive FOXO1 and MAP kinase signaling cascades to decrease OPG and increase RANKL synthesis in osteoblast cultures. We observed that downregulation of insulin/FOXO1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling mechanisms due to phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was the key event that inhibited OPG synthesis in homocysteine-treated osteoblast cultures. siRNA knockdown experiments confirmed that FOXO1 is integral to OPG and p38 synthesis. Conversely homocysteine increased RANKL synthesis in osteoblasts through c-Jun/JNK MAP kinase signaling mechanisms independent of FOXO1. In the rat bone milieu, high-methionine diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia lowered FOXO1 and OPG expression and increased synthesis of proresorptive and inflammatory cytokines such as RANKL, M-CSF, IL-1α, IL-1β, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MIP-1α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and TNF-α. Such pathophysiological conditions were exacerbated by ovariectomy. Lowering the serum homocysteine level by a simultaneous supplementation with N-acetylcysteine improved OPG and FOXO1 expression and partially antagonized RANKL and proresorptive cytokine synthesis in the bone milieu. These results emphasize that hyperhomocysteinemia alters the redox regulatory mechanism in the osteoblast by activating PP2A and deranging FOXO1 and MAPK signaling cascades, eventually shifting the OPG:RANKL ratio toward increased osteoclast activity and decreased bone quality.
Vijayan V, Khandelwal M, Manglani K, Singh RR…
Free Radic. Biol. Med. Mar 2013