Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy.
Silicon (Si) is the most abundant element present in the Earth’s crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4), as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K), the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel), silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide), and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4) in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation)-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources.
Jurkić LM, Cepanec I, Pavelić SK, Pavelić K
Nutr Metab (Lond) 2013
PMID: 23298332 | Free Full Text
The full text article (link above) has a subsection on osteoporosis:
…Interestingly, the administration of silicon in a controlled clinical study induced a significant increase in femoral bone mineral density in osteoporotic women . Direct relationship between silicon content and bone formation has been shown by Moukarzel et al. . They found a correlation between decreased silicon concentrations in total parenterally fed infants with a decreased bone mineral content. This was the first observation of a possible dietary deficiency of silicon in humans. A randomized controlled animal study on aged ovariectomized rats revealed that long-term preventive treatment with ch-OSA prevented partial femoral bone loss and had a positive effect on the bone turnover . Dietary silicon is associated with postmenopausal bone turnover and bone mineral density at the women’s age when the risk of osteoporosis increases. Moreover, in a cohort study on 3198 middle-aged woman (50–62 years) it was shown that silicon interacts with the oestrogen status on bone mineral density, suggesting that oestrogen status is important for the silicon metabolism in bone health .
Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid supplementation as an adjunct to calcium/vitamin D3 stimulates markers of bone formation in osteopenic females: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Mounting evidence supports a physiological role for silicon (Si) as orthosilicic acid (OSA, Si(OH)4) in bone formation. The effect of oral choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) on markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Over 12-months, 136 women out of 184 randomized (T-score spine < -1.5) completed the study and received, daily, 1000 mg Ca and 20 microg cholecalciferol (Vit D3) and three different ch-OSA doses (3, 6 and 12 mg Si) or placebo. Bone formation markers in serum and urinary resorption markers were measured at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured at baseline and after 12 months by DEXA.
Overall, there was a trend for ch-OSA to confer some additional benefit to Ca and Vit D3 treatment, especially for markers of bone formation, but only the marker for type I collagen formation (PINP) was significant at 12 months for the 6 and 12 mg Si dose (vs. placebo) without a clear dose response effect. A trend for a dose-corresponding increase was observed in the bone resorption marker, collagen type I C-terminal telopeptide (CTX-I). Lumbar spine BMD did not change significantly. Post-hoc subgroup analysis (baseline T-score femur < -1) however was significant for the 6 mg dose at the femoral neck (T-test). There were no ch-OSA related adverse events observed and biochemical safety parameters remained within the normal range.
Combined therapy of ch-OSA and Ca/Vit D3 had a potential beneficial effect on bone collagen compared to Ca/Vit D3 alone which suggests that this treatment is of potential use in osteoporosis.
Spector TD, Calomme MR, Anderson SH, Clement G…
BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2008
PMID: 18547426 | Free Full Text
From the full text:
Collagen provides elasticity and structure in all connective tissues and several studies have indicated that collagen is important for bone toughness [43-45] whereas the mineral component is mainly involved in providing stiffness. Wang et al.  demonstrated that the mechanical integrity of collagen fibres deteriorates with ageing in human cortical bones and is associated with a higher fracture risk. When the collagen network becomes weaker with age, it will result in decreased toughness, possibly due to a reduction in natural cross-links or silicon content. It has previously been suggested that Si may be an integral (structural) component of connective tissues as high levels of non-dialysable Si has been reported in connective tissues and their components suggesting strong (covalent) associations .
Partial prevention of long-term femoral bone loss in aged ovariectomized rats supplemented with choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid.
Silicon (Si) deficiency in animals results in bone defects. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) was found to have a high bioavailability compared to other Si supplements. The effect of ch-OSA supplementation was investigated on bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 58, age 9 months) were randomized in three groups. One group was sham-operated (sham, n = 21), and bilateral OVX was performed in the other two groups. OVX rats were supplemented orally with ch-OSA over 30 weeks (OVX1, n = 20; 1 mg Si/kg body weight daily) or used as controls (OVX0, n = 17). The serum Si concentration and the 24-hour urinary Si excretion of supplemented OVX rats was significantly higher compared to sham and OVX controls. Supplementation with ch-OSA significantly but partially reversed the decrease in Ca excretion, which was observed after OVX. The increase in bone turnover in OVX rats tended to be reduced by ch-OSA supplementation. ch-OSA supplementation increased significantly the femoral bone mineral content (BMC) in the distal region and total femoral BMC in OVX rats, whereas lumbar BMC was marginally increased. Femoral BMD was significantly increased at two sites in the distal region in OVX rats supplemented with ch-OSA compared to OVX controls. Total lumbar bone mineral density was marginally increased by ch-OSA supplementation. In conclusion, ch-OSA supplementation partially prevents femoral bone loss in the aged OVX rat model.
Calomme M, Geusens P, Demeester N, Behets GJ…
Calcif. Tissue Int. Apr 2006
Orthosilicic acid stimulates collagen type 1 synthesis and osteoblastic differentiation in human osteoblast-like cells in vitro.
Silicon deficiency in animals leads to bone defects. This element may therefore play an important role in bone metabolism. Silicon is absorbed from the diet as orthosilicic acid and concentrations in plasma are 5-20 microM. The in vitro effects of orthosilicic acid (0-50 microM) on collagen type 1 synthesis was investigated using the human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63), primary osteoblast-like cells derived from human bone marrow stromal cells, and an immortalized human early osteoblastic cell line (HCC1). Collagen type 1 mRNA expression and prolyl hydroxylase activity were also determined in the MG-63 cells. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin (osteoblastic differentiation) were assessed both at the protein and the mRNA level in MG-63 cells treated with orthosilicic acid. Collagen type 1 synthesis increased in all treated cells at orthosilicic acid concentrations of 10 and 20 microM, although the effects were more marked in the clonal cell lines (MG-63, HCCl 1.75- and 1.8-fold, respectively, P < 0.001, compared to 1.45-fold in the primary cell lines). Treatment at 50 microM resulted in a smaller increase in collagen type 1 synthesis (MG-63 1.45-fold, P = 0.004). The effect of orthosilicic acid was abolished in the presence of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors. No change in collagen type 1 mRNA level was seen in treated MG-63 cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin were significantly increased (1.5, 1.2-fold at concentrations of 10 and 20 microM, respectively, P < 0.05). Gene expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin also increased significantly following treatment. In conclusion, orthosilicic acid at physiological concentrations stimulates collagen type 1 synthesis in human osteoblast-like cells and enhances osteoblastic differentiation.
Reffitt DM, Ogston N, Jugdaohsingh R, Cheung HF…
Bone Feb 2003
Moderate ingestion of alcohol is associated with acute ethanol-induced suppression of circulating CTX in a PTH-independent fashion.
The “J shape” curve linking the risk of poor bone health to alcohol intake is now well recognized from epidemiological studies. Ethanol and nonethanol components of alcoholic beverages could influence bone remodeling. However, in the absence of a solid underlying mechanism, the positive association between moderate alcoholic intake and BMD remains questionable because of confounding associated social factors. The objective of this work was to characterize the short-term effects of moderate alcohol consumption on circulating bone markers, especially those involved in bone resorption. Two sequential blood-sampling studies were undertaken in fasted healthy volunteers (age, 20-47 yr) over a 6-h period using beer of different alcohol levels (<0.05-4.6%), solutions of ethanol or orthosilicic acid (two major components of beer), and water +/- calcium chloride (positive and negative controls, respectively). Study 1 (24 subjects) assessed the effects of the different solutions, whereas study 2 (26 subjects) focused on ethanol/beer dose. Using all data in a “mixed effect model,” we identified the contributions of the individual components of beer, namely ethanol, energy, low-dose calcium, and high-dose orthosilicic acid, on acute bone resorption. Markers of bone formation were unchanged throughout the study for all solutions investigated. In contrast, the bone resorption marker, serum carboxy terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), was significantly reduced after ingestion of a 0.6 liters of ethanol solution (>2% ethanol; p <or= 0.01, RM-ANOVA), 0.6 liters of beer (<0.05-4.6% ethanol; p < 0.02), or a solution of calcium (180 mg calcium; p < 0.001), but only after calcium ingestion was the reduction in CTX preceded by a significant fall in serum PTH (p < 0.001). Orthosilicic acid had no acute effect. Similar reductions in CTX, from baseline, were measured in urine after ingestion of the test solutions; however, the biological variability in urine CTX was greater compared with serum CTX. Modeling indicated that the major, acute suppressive effects of moderate beer ingestion (0.6 liters) on CTX were caused by energy intake in the early phase (approximately 0-3 h) and a “nonenergy” ethanol component in the later phase (approximately 3 to >6 h). The early effect on bone resorption is well described after the intake of energy, mediated by glucagon-like peptide-2, but the late effect of moderate alcohol ingestion is novel, seems to be ethanol specific, and is mediated in a non-calcitonin- and a non-PTH-dependent fashion, thus providing a mechanism for the positive association between moderate alcohol ingestion and BMD.
Sripanyakorn S, Jugdaohsingh R, Mander A, Davidson SL…
J. Bone Miner. Res. Aug 2009
PMID: 19257829 | Free Full Text
Divergent effects of orthosilicic acid and dimethylsilanediol on cell survival and adhesion in human osteoblast-like cells.
Although dietary silicon (Si) is recognized to be an important factor for the growth and development of bone and connective tissue, its biochemical role has yet to be identified. The predominant Si-containing species in blood and other biofluids is orthosilicic acid, Si(OH)(4). Dimethylsilanediol, (CH(3))(2)Si(OH)(2), is an environmental contaminant that results from decomposition of silicone compounds used in personal hygiene, health care and industrial products. We examined the in vitro effects of both Si species on the survival (colony forming efficiency), proliferation (DNA content), differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity) and adhesion (relative protein content) of the human osteoblast-like cell lines Saos-2 and hFOB 1.19. Orthosilicic acid yielded a small, dose-dependent decrease in Saos-2 cell survivability up to its 1,700 micromol/L solubility limit, by which point survival was 20% less than that of untreated cells. This negative association, although small, correlated with a reduction in the proliferation and adhesion of Saos-2 cells as well as of hFOB 1.19 and osteoclast-like GCT cells. By contrast, dimethylsilanediol treatment had no discernable influence on Saos-2 survivability at concentrations up to 50 micromol/L, and yet significantly enhanced cell survival at higher doses. Moreover, dimethylsilanediol did not affect proliferation or adhesion of any cell line. The findings show that orthosilicic acid and dimethylsilanediol affect osteoblast-like cells very differently, providing insight into the mechanism by which silicon influences bone health, although the specific site of Si activity remains unknown. There was no evidence to suggest that dimethylsilanediol is cytotoxic at environmental/physiological concentrations.
Duivenvoorden WC, Middleton A, Kinrade SD
J Trace Elem Med Biol 2008