Effects of ginkgo biloba on in vitro osteoblast cells and ovariectomized rat osteoclast cells.
Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like biphasic effect on estrogen, and could be a potential alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Here, we investigated whether GBE can ameliorate estrogen-depleted osteoporosis in in vitro osteoblast cells and in estrogen-deprived ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a classical animal model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. GBE (50-150 microg/mL) significantly increased ALP (Alkaline phosphatase) activity of osteoblast cells, indicating that GBE promotes osteoblast mineralization. OVX rats exposed to GBE (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, oral treatment), raloxifene (3 mg/kg/day, oral treatment) or estradiol (E2, 10 microg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection) decreased osteoclast resorptive activity compared with OVX rats. GBE and raloxifene did not increase uterine weight compared with OVX rats, while E2 and Sham control did, suggesting that GBE has no uterotrophic activity, which is a disadvantage of estrogen therapy. In OVX rats, GBE did not restore severe bone density loss induced by OVX, indicating that GBE may be insufficient as therapeutic material for severe osteoporosis. However, despite its no effects on bone density loss in OVX rats, GBE did stimulate osteoblast differentiation and antiosteoclastic activity in vitro. Therefore, GBE may have preventive potential on osteoporosis as do other phytoestrogens.
Oh SM, Kim HR, Chung KH
Arch. Pharm. Res. Feb 2008
Effects of Egb 761 on bone mineral density, bone microstructure, and osteoblast function: Possible roles of quercetin and kaempferol.
The effects of standardized and concentrated extract of Ginkgo biloba, Egb 761, were studied on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in ovariectomized (OVx) rats rendered osteopenic. Upon osteopenia development, Egb 761 was administered at a dose of 100mgkg(?1)day(?1) by oral gavage to OVx rats whereas control group received vehicle. Following 5 weeks of treatment, the OVx+Egb 761 group (n=12) of rats exhibited significantly higher whole body BMD and lower bone turnover markers (serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) than OVx rats that were given vehicle (n=12). BMD levels in excised bones were also found to be higher in both trabecular (most robustly in lumbar vertebrae) and cortical bones of OVx+Egb 761 compared with OVx+vehicle group. Egb 761 did not exhibit estrogen agonistic activity at the uterine level. Microcomputed tomography demonstrated that OVx+Egb 761 group had better bone microarchitectural parameters compared with OVx+vehicle group. Moreover, OVx+Egb 761 group had higher femoral mRNA levels of osterix, type I collagen and osteocalcin compared with OVx+vehicle group. Determination of levels of three flavonoids of Egb 761, that are known to have bone conserving property, in serum and bone marrow suggests that kaempferol and quercetin, and not rutin, likely mediate the beneficial actions observed with Egb 761 treatment. These results show for the first time that oral administration of Egb 761 restores bone mass in aged OVx rats.
Trivedi R, Kumar A, Gupta V, Kumar S…
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. Apr 2009