Characterization of chondroitin sulfate from deer tip antler and osteogenic properties.
Deer antler is a highly regenerative tissue that involves cellular differentiation, osteogenesis and ossification processes. Chondroitin sulfate is the major glycosaminoglycan contained in antler connective tissue and has been isolated from cartilaginous antler by 4 M GuHCl extraction, gradient ultracentrifugation and chromatography techniques. We examined the disaccharide composition by 2-AB labeling and anion exchange HPLC analysis of the three resultant fractions (high, medium and low density fractions). The high density fraction consists of A-unit and D-unit disaccharide in the ratio of 1:1, whereas, the CS disaccharide composition ratio of A- unit:C-unit:D-Unit:E-unit contained in medium and low density fractions are 3:4:3:1 and 2:2:2:1, respectively. The only intact CS oligosaccharides of the medium density fraction upregulated gene expression of bone-specific proteins of a human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19). Thus, CS oligosaccharides from cartilaginous deer antler, with their oversulfated chondroitin sulfate composition, demonstrated the physiological properties and may be good candidates for osteogenetic agents in humans.
Pothacharoen P, Kodchakorn K, Kongtawelert P
Glycoconj. J. Oct 2011
Comparison of the ability of chondroitin sulfate derived from bovine, fish and pigs to suppress human osteoclast activity in vitro.
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) compounds are commonly used to manage OA symptoms. Recent literature has indicated that abnormal subchondral bone metabolism may have a role in the pathogenesis of OA. The aim of this study was to access the effects of chondroitin sulfate obtained from bovine, fish and porcine sources on human osteoclast formation and activity in vitro. Human osteoclasts were generated from blood mononuclear cells. Cells were cultured over 17 days with the addition of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and then stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand from day 7. Cells were treated with the CS commencing from day 7 onwards. To assess effects on osteoclasts, tartrate resistant acid phosphatate (TRAP) expression and resorption of whale dentine assays were used. Bovine-derived CS consistently suppressed osteoclast activity at concentrations as low as 1 μg/ml. Fish and porcine CS was less consistent in their effects varying with different donor cells. All CS compounds had little effect on TRAP activity. mRNA analysis using real-time PCR of bovine CS treated cells indicated that the inhibition of activity was not due to inhibition of the late stage NFATc1 transcription factor (p > 0.05). These results are consistent with CS inhibition of mature osteoclast activity rather than the formation of mature osteoclasts. It would appear that there are differences in activity of the different CS compounds with bovine-derived CS being the most consistently effective inhibitor of osteoclast resorption, but the results need to be confirmed.
Cantley MD, Rainsford KD, Haynes DR
Inflammopharmacology Dec 2013
A potential role of chondroitin sulfate on bone in osteoarthritis: inhibition of prostaglandin E₂ and matrix metalloproteinases synthesis in interleukin-1β-stimulated osteoblasts.
To determine the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and related to cartilage catabolism in murine osteoblasts.
Osteoblasts were obtained by enzymatic digestion of calvaria from Swiss mice and cultured for 3 weeks as a primary culture. Cells were then stimulated with IL-1β (1 or 10 ng/ml). CS-treated osteoblasts were incubated with 100 μg/ml of CS during the last week of culture w/o IL-1β for the last 24 h. Expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), 15-PG dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), matrix metalloproteinases-3 and -13 (MMP-3 and -13), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PGE₂, MMP-3 and MMP-13 release were assessed in the medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western-blotting.
IL-1β increased COX-2, mPGES-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, RANKL expressions, decreased 15-PGDH expression, and increased PGE₂, MMP-3 and MMP-13 release. Interestingly, 7 days of CS treatment significantly counteracted IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 (-62%, P<0.001), mPGES-1 (-63%, P<0.001), MMP-3 (-39%, P=0.08), MMP-13 (-60%, P<0.001) and RANKL (-84%, P<0.001). Accordingly, IL-1β-induced PGE₂, MMP-3 and MMP-13 releases were inhibited by 86% (P<0.001), 58%(P<0.001) and 38% (P<0.01) respectively.
In conclusion, our data demonstrate that, in an inflammatory context, CS inhibits the production of PGE₂ and MMPs. Since CS has previously been shown to counteract the production of these mediators in chondrocytes, we speculate that the beneficial effect of CS in Osteoarthritis (OA) could not only be due to its action on cartilage but also on subchondral bone.
Pecchi E, Priam S, Mladenovic Z, Gosset M…
Osteoarthr. Cartil. Feb 2012