Regulatory mechanism of food factors in bone metabolism and prevention of osteoporosis.
Aging induces a decrease in bone mass, and osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Bone loss with increasing age may be due to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. Pharmacologic and nutritional factors may prevent bone loss with aging, although chemical compounds in food and plants which act on bone metabolism are poorly understood. We have found that isoflavones (including genistein and daidzein), which are contained in soybeans, have a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption, thereby increasing bone mass. Menaquinone-7, an analogue of vitamin K(2) which is abundant in fermented soybeans, has been demonstrated to stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. Of various carotenoids, beta-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unchiu MARC), has a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption. The supplementation of these factors has a preventive effect on bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats, which are an animal model of osteoporosis, and their intake has been shown to have a stimulatory effect on bone mass in humans. Factors with an anabolic effect on bone metabolism were found in extracts obtained from wasabi leafstalk (Wasabi japonica MATSUM), the marine alga Sargassum horneri, and bee pollen Cistus ladaniferus. Phytocomponent p-hydroxycinnamic acid was also found to have an anabolic effect on bone metabolism. Food chemical factors thus play a role in bone health and may be important in the prevention of bone loss with increasing age.
Dietary patterns of antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid intake associated with bone mineral density: findings from post-menopausal Japanese female subjects.
Recent studies show that antioxidants may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. This study showed the associations of bone mineral density with dietary patterns of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids. The findings suggest the combination of vitamin C and β-cryptoxanthin intakes might provide benefit to bone health in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects.
Recent epidemiological studies show antioxidants may reduce the risk of osteoporosis, but little is known about the dietary patterns of antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid intakes and their relation with bone mineral density (BMD).
A total of 293 post-menopausal female subjects who had received health examinations in the town of Mikkabi, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, participated in the study. Radial BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids were assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified on a selected set of antioxidants through principal component factor analysis.
Three dietary patterns were identified. The “retinol” pattern, characterized by notably high intakes of preformed retinol, zeaxanthin, and vitamin E, was positively associated with the risk for low BMD. In contrast, the “β-cryptoxanthin” pattern, characterized by notably high intakes of β-cryptoxanthin and vitamin C, was negatively associated with low BMD. The odds ratios for low BMD in the highest tertiles of dietary intakes of preformed retinol, vitamin C, and β-cryptoxanthin against the lowest tertiles were 3.22 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.38-7.51], 0.25 (CI, 0.10-0.66), and 0.40 (CI, 0.17-0.92), respectively, after adjustments for confounders. However, negative associations of vitamin C and β-cryptoxanthin with low BMD were not significant after further adjustment for intake of β-cryptoxanthin or vitamin C, respectively. Higher intakes of both vitamin C and β-cryptoxanthin were significantly associated with low BMD (P < 0.05).
The combination of vitamin C and β-cryptoxanthin may be associated with radial BMD in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects.
Sugiura M, Nakamura M, Ogawa K, Ikoma Y…
Osteoporos Int Jan 2011 PMID: 20480147