Regular exercise limits alcohol effects on trabecular, cortical thickness and porosity, and osteocyte apoptosis in the rat.
Excessive alcohol consumption is known to be a cause of secondary osteoporosis whereas physical activity is recommended in prevention of osteoporosis. This study was designed to analyze the effects of physical exercise on bone parameters in chronic alcohol-fed rats.
Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Control (C), Alcohol (A), Exercise (E) and Alcohol+Exercise (AE). A and AE groups drank a solution composed of ethanol and water (35% volume/volume for 17 weeks). E and AE groups were submitted to treadmill training for 14 weeks (60 min/day, 5 times/week). Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by DXA, the trabecular and cortical microarchitectural parameters by microCT and serum osteocalcin, NTx and leptin concentrations by ELISA assays. Bone mechanical parameters were evaluated through mechanical testing. Osteocyte apoptosis was analyzed with cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining.
Alcohol-fed rats had significantly lower body weight (-28%), fat (-46%) and lean mass (-25%) compared to controls. BMD (-8%), trabecular (-12%) and cortical thickness (-27%) were significantly lower with alcohol whereas porosity (+38%) and pore number (+42%) were higher. Exercise combined with alcohol prevented lower Tb.Th (+20%), Ct.Th (+30%), stress (+26%) and higher Ct.Po (-24%) and osteocyte apoptosis (-91%) compared to A. However, WB BMD (-4%) and femur BMD were still lower in AE versus C.
Regular physical activity has beneficial effects on some microarchitectural parameters in alcohol-fed rats. However, regular treadmill exercise does not compensate for the effects of heavy chronic alcohol consumption on whole body bone density.
Maurel DB, Boisseau N, Pallu S, Rochefort GY…
Joint Bone Spine Oct 2013
Influence of exercise mode and osteogenic index on bone biomarker responses during short-term physical training.
Prescribing exercise based on intensity, frequency, and duration of loading may maximize osteogenic responses in bone, but a model of the osteogenic potential of exercise has not been established in humans. In rodents, an osteogenic index (OI) has been used to predict the osteogenic potential of exercise. The current study sought to determine whether aerobic, resistance, or combined aerobic and resistance exercise programs conducted over eight weeks and compared to a control group could produce changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover indicative of bone formation. We further sought to determine whether an OI could be calculated for each of these programs that would reflect observed biochemical changes. We collected serum biomarkers [bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type I collagen (CTx), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), and parathyroid hormone (PTH)] in 56 women (20.3+/-1.8 years) before, during and after eight weeks of training. We also measured bone mineral density (BMD) at regional areas of interest using DXA and pQCT. Biomarkers of bone formation (BAP and osteocalcin) increased in the Resistance and Combined groups (p<0.05), while biomarkers of bone resorption (TRAP and DPD) decreased and increased, respectively, after training (p<0.05) in all groups. Small changes in volumetric and areal BMD (p<0.05) were observed in the distal tibia in the Aerobic and Combined groups, respectively. Mean weekly OIs were 16.0+/-1.9, 20.6+/-2.2, and 36.9+/-5.2 for the Resistance, Aerobic, and Combined groups, respectively. The calculated osteogenic potential of our programs did not correlate with the observed changes in biomarkers of bone turnover. The results of the present study demonstrate that participation in an eight week physical training program that incorporates a resistance component by previously inactive young women results in alterations in biomarkers of bone remodeling indicative of increased formation without substantial alterations in markers of resorption.
Lester ME, Urso ML, Evans RK, Pierce JR…
Bone Oct 2009