Osteoclast inhibitory effects of vitamin K2 alone or in combination with etidronate or risedronate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 2-year results.
To investigate the effects of vitamin K2 (Vit K2) alone or in combination with etidronate and risedronate on bone loss, osteoclast induction, and inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Subjects comprised 79 patients with RA who were receiving prednisolone, divided into 3 groups: Group K, Vit K2 alone; Group KE, Vit K2 plus etidronate; and Group KR, Vit K2 plus risedronate. During a 24-month treatment and followup period, levels of N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx) and bone alkaline phosphatase were measured. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the 3 groups was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Damage score to fingers on radiographic findings were measured according to the Larsen method. Serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were measured.
Falls in rate of change of BMD decreased after 18 months in groups KR and KE. Larsen damage scores indicated a significant difference between Group KE and other groups. Significant decreases in serum NTx were observed in groups KE and KR at all timepoints, but not in Group K. Levels of RANKL decreased significantly in all 3 groups. Vit K2 alone or in combination with bisphosphonates for treatment of osteoporosis in patients with RA may inhibit osteoclast induction via decreases in levels of RANKL.
Morishita M, Nagashima M, Wauke K, Takahashi H…
J. Rheumatol. Mar 2008 PMID: 18260178
Comparative effects of risedronate, atorvastatin, estrogen and SERMs on bone mass and strength in ovariectomized rats.
The aim of this study was to investigate bone protective effects of risedronate, atorvastatin, raloxifene and clomiphene citrate in ovariectomized rats.
Our study was conducted on 63 rats at Experimental Research Center of Celal Bayar University. Six-month-old rats were divided into seven groups. There were five drug administered ovariectomized groups, one ovariectomized control group without drug administration and one non-ovariectomized control group without drug administration. Eight weeks postovariectomy, rats were treated with the bisphosphonate risedronate sodium, the statin atorvastatin, the estrogen 17beta-estradiol and the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) raloxifene hydrochloride and clomiphene citrate by gavage daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, rats were killed under anesthesia. For densitometric evaluation, left femurs and tibiae were removed. Left femurs were also used to measure bone volume. Right femurs were used for three-point bending test. Compared to ovariectomized group, femur cortex volume increased significantly in non-ovariectomized group (p=0.016). Compared to non-ovariectomized group, distal femoral metaphyseal and femur midshaft bone mineral density values were significantly lower in ovariectomized group (p=0.047). In ovariectomy+atorvastatin group, whole femur and femur midshaft bone mineral density and three-point bending test maximal load values were significantly higher than ovariectomized group (p=0.049, 0.05, and 0.018). When compared to the ovariectomized group, no significant difference was found with respect to femoral maximum load values in groups treated with risedronate, estrogen, raloxifene and clomiphene (p=0.602, 0.602, 0.75, and 0.927). In ovariectomy+risedronate group, femur midshaft bone mineral density values were significantly higher than the values in ovariectomized group (p=0.023). When compared to ovariectomized group, no significant difference was found with respect to femur midshaft bone mineral density values in groups treated with estrogen, raloxifene and clomiphene (p=0.306, 0.808, and 0.095).
While risedronate sodium prevented the decrease in bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats, atorvastatin maintained mechanical characteristics of bone and also prevented the decrease in bone mineral density as risedronate sodium.
Uyar Y, Baytur Y, Inceboz U, Demir BC…
Maturitas Jul 2009 PMID: 19386450
Here is a nice talk by Dr. Heather Hofflich from May 15, 2013. She’s an Associate Professor of Medicine at UCSD. She gives an overview of osteoporosis and discusses the causes and therapies used to treat it. She also takes a look at recent controversies in treatment plans and vitamin usage.
One thing that bothers me about her talk is that she claims Teriparatide is the only thing in the world that builds bone by increasing osteoblast activity. I’ve posted many studies that found increases in osteoblasts from a variety of things. She also didn’t mention any other potentially helpful dietary supplements besides Calcium and Vitamin D. Like most MDs, she is probably unaware of anything that is not FDA approved.