Fruit and vegetable intake and bone mass in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.
Previous studies showed an inconsistent association of fruit and vegetable consumption with bone health. We assessed the associations in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study conducted in China during July 2009 to May 2010.
Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the whole body, lumbar spine and left hip were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using an FFQ. All these values were separately standardized into Z-scores in each population subgroup.
One hundred and ten boys and 112 girls (11-14 years), 371 young women (20-34 years, postpartum within 2 weeks) and 333 postmenopausal women (50-70 years).
After adjustment for potential covariates, analysis of covariance showed a significantly positive association between fruit intake and BMD and BMC in all participants combined (P-trend: < 0.001 to 0.002). BMD Z-score increased by 0.25 (or 2.1 % of the mean), 0.22 (3.5 %), 0.23 (3.0 %) and 0.25 (3.5 %), and BMC Z-score increased by 0.33 (5.7 %), 0.25 (5.8 %), 0.34 (5.9 %) and 0.29 (4.7 %), at the total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck in participants belonging to the top tertile compared with the bottom tertile of fruit intake (all P < 0.05), respectively. There was no significant association between vegetable intake and bone mass at all bone sites studied except for total body BMD (P = 0.030). Relatively more pronounced effects were observed in boys and postmenopausal women.
Our findings add to the existing evidence that fruits and vegetables may have a bone sparing effect.
Li JJ, Huang ZW, Wang RQ, Ma XM…
Public Health Nutr Jan 2013 PMID: 22717072
Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, recent research has clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Further, results of calcium and vitamin D supplementation trials have been inconsistent, suggesting that reliance on this intervention may be inadequate. In addition to dairy, fruit and vegetable intake has emerged as an important modifiable protective factor for bone health. Several nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin K, several B vitamins, and carotenoids, have been shown to be more important than previously realized. Rather than having a negative effect on bone, protein intake appears to benefit bone status, particularly in older adults. Regular intake of cola beverages shows negative effects and moderate alcohol intake shows positive effects on bone, particularly in older women. Current research on diet and bone status supports encouragement of balanced diets with plenty of fruit and vegetables, adequate dairy and other protein foods, and limitation of foods with low nutrient density.
Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.
Alkali provision may explain why fruit and vegetables benefit bone health.
We aimed to determine the effects of alkali-providing potassium citrate (double-blind) and fruit and vegetable intake (single-blind) on bone turnover over 2 y.
We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 276 postmenopausal women (aged 55-65 y). Women were randomly assigned to 4 groups: high-dose potassium citrate (55.5 mEq/d), low-dose potassium citrate (18.5 mEq/d), placebo, and 300 g additional fruit and vegetables/d (equivalent of 18.5 mEq alkali). Serum and fasted urine for bone markers were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. An additional urine sample was collected at 4-6 wk. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and 2 y.
Repeated-measures ANOVA showed no difference between groups for urinary free deoxypyridinoline cross-links relative to creatinine (fDPD/Cr), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen, or beta C-terminal telopeptide, although, at 4-6 wk, fDPD/Cr was lower in the high-dose potassium citrate group (P = 0.04). Mean +/- SD spine BMD loss in the placebo group (1.8 +/- 3.9%) did not differ significantly from that in the treatment groups (2.1 +/- 3.2%; P = 0.88). Hip BMD loss in the placebo and low-dose potassium citrate groups was 1.3 +/- 2.3% and 2.2 +/- 2.3%, respectively (P = 0.14).
Two-year potassium citrate supplementation does not reduce bone turnover or increase BMD in healthy postmenopausal women, which suggests that alkali provision does not explain any long-term benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on bone.
In summary, neither potassium citrate at 18.5 or 55.6 mEq/d nor 300 g self-selected fruit and vegetables/d influenced bone turnover or prevented BMD loss over 2 y in healthy postmenopausal women. Further work is required to investigate whether particular fruit and vegetables are important and how much of each is optimal for bone health.